·Importance of class: middle class characters.
Naturalism: Important discoveries (Darwin and origin of species).
Determinism (theory of heredity), influence of environment. Emile zola (father of naturalism). (Novel : MAGGIE)
Objective depiction of reality.
Application of scientific methods
Belief in determinism (character dominated by their circumstances, especially heredity and environment)
Content is more important than form.
Novels of thesis: scientific laws applied to characters.
Main subject matter: working classes and poverty.
Main themes: determinism, survival, violence, taboo topics.
Characters: compared to animals.
Techniques: panoramic views, influence of photography.
The new Women: Charlotte perkins gilman, the yellow wallpaper.
·Feminist ideal: end of 19th C, influence in 20th C -> feminist movements.
·Coined by Sarah Grand in The New aspect of the Woman question
·The term new women always referred to women who exercises control over their own lives be it personal, social or economic.
Education: education and employment opportunities increasing. Right to attend university.
Social expectations: emergence of education, career opportunities and legal rights to properties leads to a new position of freedom and choice of sexual and marital partners.
Great importance on sexual autonomy/although still disapproval from society (sex outside marriage is still considered immoral).
Novels: Ibsen’s A doll’s house.