4. Causes of the Civil War
States’ Rights, The Missouri Compromise, The Dred Scott Decision, TheAbolitionist Movement & Abolitionist John Brown ́s Raid On HarpersFerry, Slavery in America, Underground Railroad, Uncle Tom’s Cabin,Secessionism & Abraham Lincoln’s Election
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States. All were enacted in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by white Democratic-dominated state legislatures after the Reconstruction period. The laws were enforced until 1965. In practice, Jim Crow laws mandated racial segregation in all public facilities in the states of the former Confederate States of America, starting in the 1870s and 1880s, and were upheld in 1896, by the U.S. Supreme Court's "separate but equal" legal doctrine for facilities for African Americans, established with the court's decision in the case of Plessy vs. Ferguson. Moreover, public education had essentially been segregated since its establishment in most of the South, after the Civil War (1861–65).
6. Immigration waves
Since its founding in 1789, the United States has experienced almost constant immigration, but especially noteworthy have been several massive waves of voluntary international migration that reconfigured the population. Political scientists divide immigration to the United States into three major waves:
1. Early immigration (1700s–1850): Immigrants from western and northern Europe arrived in great numbers for economic, political, and religious reasons. Germans and Irish, in particular, came to the United States in the 1830s and 1840s. European settlers imported millions of African slaves as well.
2. Second wave (1850–1970): Immigrants came primarily from southern and eastern Europe to escape violence and political instability in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Several million Jews also immigrated to the United States before and after World War II.