Concept of education

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CADIZ CONSTITUTION AND QUINTANA REPORT: The constitution of 1812 established:  First-letter schools were established in all the villages of the monarchy, where children will be taught to read, write and sing,  include a brief exposition of civil obligations. -The competent number of universities and other science, literature and fine arts  - teaching plan was uniform in kingdom, explaining the political constitution in all the universities- A general direction of studies was established, composed of people of known instruction, - All Spaniards will have the freedom to write, and publish their political ideas without the need for a license.After a war Fernando VII came back from French, he declined the constitution. The colonel Riego gave a coup d’état in which the king Fernando was forced to swear the constitution and the law of public instruction was passed in 1821. The central institution was established in Madrid, 1845 by Isabel II there was a moderate constitution characterized by census suffrage,only few people could vote, and sovereignty shared between nation and people. Moyano law was passed in 1857 by the moderates, the Spanish national educational system started in Cadiz and was finished here, the education is a topic of interest, that is responsibility of the government. This law established a homogenous/compulsory education between boys and girls between 6 and 9 years old, they made public exams for the teachers that wanted to  the  all the teacher have a similar level.Religion has an important role in the Spanish society, so it is included education. The libraries were a fundamental element of the education.This law was elementary until 1970, established the bases to create institutions like museums or library’s. Between 1858-1863 occurred the liberal union, between 1868 and 1874 occurred the selenic democratic, during these time Isabel II was in the exile due to the Carlist wars. Some measures during this period: secular state,, universal suffrage freedom of printing . Attempts to centralize power. 1874-1898: The society is civil; the president of the government is a civil person. During this period occurred the Bourbon restoration,Alfonso XII returns to the throne thanks to Canovas del Castillo.Canovas established turnismo, this is a politic system, in which the election would be rigged in a way that they already know is going to became president, in one election would be the liberals and in the others the conservatives. The constitution is going to be catholic, so the education is controlled by the church. Education law changes depending on the government. The Catholicism and bourbons have influence on the ILE, free teaching institution. Intellectuals like Francisco Giner de los Riós supported the idea of the catedra,means that teachers are free to teach what they wanted. The government gives to the citizens tools by laws to then be free. The school hast to be public and free. The education has to be useful,and create good citizens that contribute to the society, so values and sciences becomes important to the Spanish education. Men and women have to study together and women has to has the same opportunities to the women .Learn all from books is not good, this is the idea of Rousseau of how the kid has to experiment with his atmosphere and earn by mistakes and experience  MESOCRACY: the sovereignty of the intelligent. Those who will manage public or private life. The purpose of education is to prepare those who will govern.  With the triumph of the moderates, the so-called "Pidal Plan"; is made public  Pedro José Pidal, Minister of the Interior) who is strongly inclined to teach as state law. The 1845 plan condemns the freedom of texts, which should be approved every three years by the Public Instruction Council. This control ensured state dominance in public instruction. As a key piece of this reform, the General Directorate of Public Instruction is created by decree
of 1846, entrusted to the inspirer of the entire project, the liberal Antonio Gil de Zarate.Plan PIDAL 1845 Regulate primary, secondary and superior education , freedom in primary education, signatory in secondary and prohibit in the superior .The plan Pidal ensures secularization, freedom of teaching and free one. Part of the same. As well as centralization, its administrative system, faculty, etc. The teachers get
now better conditions and better payments, they used to live in the poverty and are now
as well better prepared for became teachers of the state they have to pass the state
exams.
Plan Pidal gives in the possible private education in secondary but not in the university,
also it also carefully established the necessary requirements for the operation of schools
and the. Revalidation of titles.
The rector is the head of the university and the deacons of the universities, in this law,
the rector was elected. All the deacons y rectors are appointed by the state.

After a brief period of secularization, the signing of the Concordat with the Holy See
in 1851 returns the teaching to the ecclesiastical domain. The Church assumes the role
of guardian of orthodoxy at all levels of education, as evidenced by article 31 of the
Concordat.
The content of the concordat is divided into 46 articles in which a series of aid to the
church by the state is agreed, it was recognized that the Catholic religion was the only
one in the Spanish nation and that the instruction of the schools would conform to the
same.
QUINTANA REPORT 
Once the Constitution of 1812 was promulgated, some liberal deputies considered it
necessary to elaborate a General Law of Public Instruction that would develop and
expand the constitutional principles. In March 1813, the Office of the Ministry of the
Interior constitutes a Public Instruction Board to which it reports a report1 on the
general reform of national education. Drafted in just six months, the report was prepared
in the city of Cádiz and signed on September 9, 1813 by the deputies Martín González
de Navas, José de Vargas Ponce, Eugenio de Tapia, Diego Clemencín, Ramón Gil de
la Cuadra and Manuel José Quintana, all of them members of the Board of Public
Instruction. 
The Quintana Report is an exposition of basic principles. It starts from education not
only as an instrument of social reform, but as an ideal and indisputable means for the
evolution and progress of society. For the first time there is a blind faith in education as
an engine of human progress: "as we enter life, we ignore all that we can or should be
from now on. Instruction teaches us; instruction develops our faculties and talents, and
it magnifies and fortifies with all the means accumulated by the succession of the
centuries in the generation and in the society that we are part of. ”By teaching us what
our rights are, it shows us the obligations that we must fulfill: its purpose is that we live
happily for ourselves and Useful to others.

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