Concept of education

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·The ultimate public opinion poll is: The voting booth on election day ELECTIONS

·General agreement among the citizenry on An issue is: CONSENSUS

·Most views that are expressed as political opinions are acquired:From political socialization b/c of Party ID

·*Concerning political socialization, Most studies show that most:

·*Research Suggests that the clearest legacy of the influence of the family on political Socialization is…

·Generally, the more education a person Receives: the more likely That person will be interested in politics

·Peer groups are most likely to influence Political attitudes when: the peer group is actively involved in political activities

·Liberals are most commonly understood to Embrace: change in government through reform; the New Elite

·Conservatives are most commonly understood to embrace: stick To the traditional ways of government and tend to oppose change; the Traditional Elite

·*Election research indicates the number of Americans who could be Identified as ideologues is:


·People who become members of interest groups for solidarity Incentives are joining: FOR A SENSE OF BELONGING TO THE GROUP.

·People who become members of interest groups for material Incentives are joining: to improve their economic opportunities or gain Economic benefits

·Direct lobbying techniques used by Interest groups include: interaction with government officials to further the Group's goals (Approch an elected Official personally)

·Indirect lobbying techniques used by Interest groups include: uses third parties to influence government officials

·Lobbyists make themselves valuable to government decision makers By: Through PAC Money

·Grassroots lobbying is effective because legislators and Government officials are often more impressed by contacts from: PUBLIC OPINION

·The intent of “astroturf” lobbying is to:Indirect lobbying efforts that manipulate or Create public sentiment, "astroturf" being artificial grassroots

·The “shotgun” approach to lobbying: Having large numbers of constituents act in concert by writing, emailing, Phoning, or sending postcards to a legislator

·The “rifle” technique of lobbying consists of: Having an influential constituent contact a Legislator on a particular issue

·Definition of Climate Control as a lobbying technique: The use of public relations techniques to Create favorable public opinion toward an interest group, industry, or Corporation

·A political party is a group of individuals who: seeks to elect candidates to public office; Factions and can have internal factions

·A political party differs from an interest group in that: PP have a broad focus (IG have narrow focus)
-PP want to BE government (IG want to steer Government from outside)

·*Between the national conventions the major functions of American Political parties arecarried out at The national level by: NATIONAL COMMITEE

·American parties are composed of the party: 1) in the electorate
2) Organization
3) In Government

·The party-in-electorate is: individuals Who perceive themselvesas party members; many voters have a party Identification that guides and influences their votes. No dues or membership Cards;one needs only to claim to be a member.

·The party institution or organization is: a national office, a full-time staff,rules and Bylaws, and budgets. American parties are loosely organized at the national, State, and local levels. The party organization pursues electoral victory.

·The party-in-government is: consists Of elected officials who call themselves members of the party (such as President and Congress). These leaders do not always agree on policy; but they Are the main
spokespersons of the party.

·A major reason for the death of local political party machines is: Most social services are now controlled by State and national agencies

·In principle, the Democrats have been known as the party of:the working class

·In principle, the Republicans have been known as the party of:the middle and upper classes.

·A major reason for the two-party system is the electoral system Which is based on the concept of: the Winner-take-all, or plurality, system

·In the winner-take-all (plurality) system: whoever gets the most votes wins

·*Requiring candidates from newly established political parties to Obtain more signatures on petitions to qualify to run for office than Established parties:

·The increase today in split ticket voting and registered Independents suggest that: parties have Lost much of their hold on the loyalty of their voters

·Political parties have been weakened by the: declined because of laws and government Practices that took over party functions (voting, elections), loss of Commitment to party identification, decentralization
-rise of candidate-centered politics
-progressive actions reduced party corruption And made boss rule more difficult

·***All of the following are important reasons that election campaigns no Longer depend on political parties EXCEPT:

·A political action committee (PAC) is: a private group that raises and distributes Funds for use in election campaigns. /They are the political arms of special Interest groups and other organizations who have a stake in politics

·When the selection of the parties’ candidates is limited to Declared party members, it is called a(an): closed Primary

·There are five questions on Electoral College from pages 276-277 Of the textbook:

·The people who cast their ballots in the Electoral College are Called: electors

·*The Constitution indicates that the number of electors each state Has in the Electoral College: is determined By the number of representatives and senators a state has in Congress.

·How electors are selected within each state is governed by: state laws and party rules

·The Constitution does not require electors to: cast their ballots for the candidate of their Party

·A brief memorable comment that easily can be fit into news Broadcasts is called: Sound Bite

·In cases where no presidential candidate receives a majority of The Electoral College vote: the election is decided in the U.S. House of Representatives.

·Spin refers to: an Interpretation of campaign events that is most favorable to the candidate

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