1.Stateis a political organization which hasthe sovereign power over a territory which is exercised from various administrations and which has the monopoly of the use of force and violence.
a) It has territorial power. The power of the State extends to the whole territory that delimit its borders. Within these borders, nothing and no one escapes its power. Any person or organization acting in its territory is automatically subjected to its rules.
b) It is sovereign. At the state level there is no instance higher than the State itself. So, the State is the supreme sovereign and it has supreme authority. The other associations or institutions of that community are subordinated to it and must operate within what the State authorizes. Otherwise, they can be sanctioned or cancelled.
c) It is in charge of maintaining order.This is perhaps the main function of the State. The State has an obligation to protect its members from internal and external threats. Thus, internally, it must enforce the law to avoid conflicts and ensure stability and social peace. Externally, it must protect its citizens from foreign attacks or incursions by means of international relations and diplomacy.
2.The State is not necessary:Position defended by anarchism. Anarchists, like Mijaíl Bakunin, consider that theState is the instrument of the powerful ones to oppress the people so that only a few are in possession of the wealth of all. The State is used to perpetuate the injustices of a ruling class which is willing to provoke wars, hunger, abuses and all kinds of privations to the majority in order to maintain their privileges.
Anarchism is based on the idea that the human being is good by nature, so in a free and egalitarian community the State would be no longer necessary because the social solidarity would be imposed as the fundamental rule.The State is necessary. Position adopted by the majority of thinkers which defend that the State is essential for two reasons: 1ºDue to the fact that the State monopolizes force, since it is the only one that can make a legitimate use of it, the State is necessary to limit and control the outbreaks of violence that may occur. In fact, competitiveness, rivalry and aggressiveness are as natural to the human being as cooperation and solidarity can be. For this reason, the State presents itself as the only one capable of preventing these confrontations and conflicts that put at risk the social stability.
2ºIt is also necessary because it is the only instance that promotes the common good. Individual subjects and associations are so preoccupied with achieving their own goals that it is necessary an institution as the State that looks for the public well-being. The construction of public infrastructures, the common defence, the protection of the environment, the care for the most disadvantaged, the organization of a public health system or the extension of education to the whole population are objectives that make necessary the existence of the State.