Concept of education

Classified in Philosophy and ethics

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Plato:Constantly changing/permanent, shadows and Perception/forms, learning: we cannot learn through our senses, the concepts Are innate and we must reason about them to figure them out, rationalist:Reasoning without empirical prove , forms Posses the highest and most fundamental kind of reality. The forms are only Accessible through reason not through senses,

Aristotles:Used for logical argument and to aid explanations, Through deductive argument (from true premise derived, mathematically certain Conclusion, his syllogism provides a system in which knowledge can be Articulated, Knowledge based on axioms Grundsätze

Aquinas:

Ontology: there is an omnipotent (all mighty), and omniscient(all knowing) God, law of nature is determined by Him, no contingencies random shit, he used philosophical argumentation to Support and persuade his theories,  humans have no innate knowledge, the Intellect is the essence of humans, each thing desires perfection therefore Humans try to actualise all potential to fulfil their natural desire, no innate knowl.

investigation without the precondition of Faith- logical argumentation, There are two demonstrative stages: Demonstration of object of study, and through its essence, the mind is only Used to understand material things, if it comes to immaterial things it need Causal arguments(that show that is necessary to have them in order to explain Material things)

decartes:

 first principles are only known by intuition And remote conclusions are only known by deduction, The intellect is a source of truth, the Will may introduce errors, judgment depends on two faculties: the fac. Of knowledge(intellect, and the will, a judgment is made when the will agrees to An idea of the intellect= source of truth, substances exist by themselfes, the human body is one and has properties, like thinking properties cannot exist on their own, knowledge through senses possible

Bacon:

Empiricist, Realist, Inductive argument: 1. NAtural history data,2. Induction, supports reductionism., science can be hinderned: idols of tribe mind is like a ditortet mirror and senses are deceivable, idols of theatre: false dogmas, idols of den And cavern false language idols of market: false language, inductive method: putting all little ingridients together to a bigger one data, simple and complex compounds, Failure to included importance of mathematics

Locke:

Primary and secondary qualities, ideas -complex ideas formed abstraction, modes are based in substances and reforme them, substances are already existing ideas, From Knowledge epiricism to concept empiricism,comparing to the External archetype which is mental( e.G. A table), several simple ideas Combined, substrata is what hold this qualities together, Knowledge:intuitive= direct perception, not involving reason, our own Existance, Demonstrative= Connecting ideas indirect perception, sensitive= our experience from the world, no a priori knowledge,

Hume: perception imression ideas (reflection of impression or compound idea) faculty of reason humes fork realtions of ideas( intuition Mathemathics and) and demosntration, all a priori, ". Matter of fact postteriori, sensory and factual reasoning, you need three principles of connection for ideas: resemblance continuity and cause effect relations, alll reasoning from matter of fact comes from cause effect: causal connection: repeated event repeated sense experience, cutom habbit, feeling of expectation, this feeling is the idea which can be tranced back to the impression of the beginning copy principle


Kant

Transcendental Argument: What must be the world be like for humans to create knowledge:

A knowable structure(everything behaves in Manner, ordered in space and time)

Consistent things with properties, which Have to be measurable

 Transcendental idealism:

Space and time are forms in which object Appear to us, and not the objects themselves, they are a priori knowledge Grounded in our sensibility, Kant is also of that opinion, we contruct our own World by using them, we create it because we use the categories that is also Why we cannot understand the noumenal world

Transcendental Realism

Things are real concepts, they apply to Things in themselves, are a priori, a phenomenal world can appear even if no Observer there , exists independent of us

This is why categories apply

British Empiricism (problems) and Kant’s Major Philosophical Project

Empiricism: He is empirical realist in terms of using categories, he highlights that Empiricism alone leaves a lot unexplained, e.G. The role of mathematic as being Not a priori, he wants an a priori philosophical foundation for modern science

Transcendental Investigation:

Understand the world, principles of reason Provide the rules which govern our experience and knowledge of objects, rules Are independent of experience( a priori)

 Empiricism Rationalism: Kant supports a synthesis of these two ontologies, he wants an a Priori philosophical basis for science

Phenomenal And noumenal

Epistemology (intuition, conceptualisation pure forms)

His empistemology is that we can gain Knowledge that ideas derived from reason are the guide to practise, He wants to Set up an a priori basis with categories which ought to be the foundation of Modern science, therefore he wants to combine intuition which is generated from empirical perception and concept Which come from reasoning, his categories are a priori pure form concepts

No internal without external

·British empiricism and problems:

Argues that empirical concepts leave much Unexplained and that there is knowledge in the posterior as well not just in a Priori, reason only subordinate to feelings, e.G. Lock in his theory Presupposed a priori knowledge that he was trying to refute.

Practical adequacy: truth regarding Practise

Theory laden character: already Preconceptualized observation


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