Classical Realism: oldest research programme in IR. Positivist Ontology. IR as objective and measurable. Scientific approach to social science. Classical, Neo- or Structural, Offensive, Defensive, Neo classical. IR as analytically and empirically verifiable and measurable through human observation. Founding fathers: Thucydides, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Clausewitz. The realist world view and practitioners: politics as a struggle for power for one party advantage. The realist mottos: ‘The aim justifies the means’(Machiavelli). Key theoretical assumptions: the states and international system— international system as anarchic. Limited scope for co-operation, material resources shape foreign policy, war likely to arise between different states, a shift in capabilities will shift states interests and objectives. No world government above sovereign states. Lack of international hierarchy. States are rational and act towards self-interest (cost-benefit analysis). States have the same ‘a-priori’ interests, the black box concept. 3 golden interests-survival,security, and power. Focus on material capabilities and their distribution. 3 options for state policy: Hegemony, balancing, bandwagoning— how to pursue these golden interests? States will amass resources, relative rather than collective gains, mainly military and economic capabilities. Realists discard domestic politics, sees states as black boxes, continuity in state foreign policy, international institutions as tools of states.
English school: First debate was confined to the US, it reignited debate btw: internationalism vs isolationism. Not just a british enterprise. Between the 2nd and 3rd debates, rejection of an exclusively postivist approach. Skepticism of neo-realist and neo-liberal theoretical assumptions. Preferenc for a more traditional approach, acknowledgment of subjective factors,also known as liberal realism. Main idea: there is no escape from values. IR theory as explanitory. The more commonalities among actors the more stable the deriving'societal order'. 3 level dynamics in IR, international system, international society, and world society (human rather than state community). Focus on society rather than system. There is no escape from history and values, preference for looser analytical architecture. Internal tension btw pluralists (order, internatioanl society) and solidarists (humanitarian values, world society)