Concept of education

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Feminism:Ir More complicated than realism vs liberalism. Rejection Of excessive reliance on empiricism. Comes From constructivism and Marxism, women under represented in IR. Four Main approaches;Liberal feminism:Liberal feminism wants to ensure that women Have the same opportunities in society as do men, so that means liberal in the Broader sense of general support for democratic capitalism. Marxist Feminism: sees Capitalism as the source of women’s oppression, and seeks to create new Structures for society. Constructivist Feminism:stresses the differences in how women view And think about the world. It argues that women’s approach to the world would Be more likely to bring peace and avoid conflict.gender is a subjective Category and socially learned behavior. Post structural and post-colonial feminism: Rejection of any links to any other biased theoretical approaches Redefinition Of traditional IR concepts, such as security, power and, sovereignty . Conflict Must also include structural (denial of basic needs) and domestic violence Against women. Acknowledges race,religion,culture etc.Gender Inequalities call for radical change in gender roles. Gender Is socially constructed, western dominated discourse favours masculinity. Strong Values such as independence and strength relate to masculinity.Weak Values such as weakness and emotionality relate to femininity. Ir theory expressed as "hegemonic masculinity". Realism And liberalism are gender biased. Portrays Women as victims and subalterns.Post-colonial Feminism critique of false universalassumptions (“Western biased”).Moves away from positivism to post positivist And post structural positions. Re-conceptualizing Security: Mainstream theories class security as uni Dimensional, feminism classes it a multi dimensional. Traditional state security policies have Marginalized women. Challenging the myth of masculine and “state Protection”. National security equals insecurity for Marginalized women and subalterns. The concept of “structural violence” against Women. Anarchy, borders, military security, economic Sanctions as examples of gendered IR theory.Rape as an instrument of “war” as an example of IR theory gender bias


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