LEARNING PROCESS AND MECHANISMS: 1. Individual learners differences: -beliefs about language learning (Use of language, learning about the language, personal factors, learner’s beliefs about language learning can be determined by past experiences both in education and in language learning) -affective states (reaction of learners to the learning situation and affective states are difficult to study bc it is individualistic and changeable) -other factors. 2. Learner strategies. 3. Language learning outcomes (everything in terms of performance on same language tests)
ANXIETY: It affects in a negative way the performance in L2. 1. Trait anxiety: permanent predispositions to be anxious. 2. State anxiety: fear experienced at a particular moment in time. 3. Situation-specific anxiety: anxiety to learn L2 and communicate on it. Types of anxiety: 1. Facilitating anxiety: motivates learners to fight the new learning task, prompting them to make extra efforts to overcome their feelings of anxiety. 2. Debilitating anxiety: causes the learner to flee the learning task and avoid the source of anxiety. Intensity of anxiety: 1. Low-anxiety state: having a facilitating function. 2. High-anxiety state: having a debilitating effect. Causes: -competitive natures -tests -relationship with teachers -fear of losing oneself. Role of anxiety: 1. Beginner: very little anxiety. 2. Port beginner: anxiety develops negative expectations based on bad learning experiences. 3. Later: Increased anxiety produces bad learning experiences.
PERSONALITY: There are tow main components: 1.Sociability: -outgoing (sociable, impulsive..) -Introvert (quiet, shy). 2. Risk taking: very positive, being imaginative, creative, empathetic..
Extrovert people would be more successful learners, but here is no clear support for the advantage of either trait. Introverts generally do better in school and extroverts talk more.