Concept of education

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Education. Concept

A previous approach, education is improved, is linked to the ideal vision of man and his role in the world.

In this initial educational function can be the root and timológica the concept of education. (1)

When we speak of education must combine the personal needs
with its social impact, therefore it is necessary to clarify a number of requirements
that will lead to targets and the move to close us astray. First
Instead, any definition of education was established according to the purposes thereof.
That is, what they really want to establish is a final end-goal or objective-to
which is reached through a series of devices.

Notes individuating the concept of "education"

In the approach to play a decisive role for a number of
pre-political beliefs, social, religious, etc.-as well as a number of
basic ideas: the idea of man, his place in society, its far-reaching, etc.
Whether we like it or not, all these factors involved in defining and ultimately
in the conception of educational action.

Two other aspects are also included in the concept of education:
person who is active as an agent and the substance of
that education. Could be further determined as the agent and the content
with which education is made. Which of the two is more important? There can be
a categorical answer, because while some advocates of spontaneity
individual-item-agent, others put the key in cultural property.

According to the first must be given freedom to the student to go
forming. This is the point of view Cousinet:

* The main duty of the educator is to be equally careful not to introduce into the
fictitious childhood needs, inappropriate interventions, and enable children to meet their
real needs, leaving complete freedom to the maturation and convenient means assuring "

I also have supporters on the opposite side. For them the fundamental
cultural property are to be achieved as, but were never applied
the harshest punishments. In this aspect belong all those who, like
Durkheim, believe that education is the transmission of cultural goods by
Pate of the older generations to younger generations, it is fundamental
keep the company formed by some cultural property. Are significant in this
sense Durkheim's words: "Man that education should be made in
us is not the man as nature has done, but as society wants
that is "(3)

Trying to make a list of definitions have been given for
comprehensive education would work. Each one of them usually insist on one point
greater prominence than others. Therefore we will make a synthesis of
predominant aspects and treated in the definitions, which will have a
insight into the attitudes of their authors, determined by the prevailing ideas
intellectual, social, political, moral and religious of his time.

1. Idea
improvement. "Education is a modification of
man, but involves an improvement, the realization of the
their fullest potential:
GARCIA HOZ: "Education is the deliberate development of
specifically human faculties "

KANT.: "Education is the development of all the perfection that
Man carries in his nature. "

Pio. XI: "To educate is to cooperate with divine grace to be the true and perfect
Christian. "

Plato.: "To educate is to give the body and soul all the beauty and perfection that
are capable of. "

STUART MILL: "Education brings us closer to the perfection of our nature."

Closely linked to the idea of perfection is the idea either, since both
refer to as suitable for human nature. Some educators
make a specific reference to the good of man when he defined education:

Overberg: "Education is a means to good"

2. Means of achieving
order of man-education appears
indispensable means for man to be taken in its fullness and
reach its ultimate goal, although the idea that it takes depends on
philosophy on starting. Here are some definitions are
this different conception of man, as a finite or be
DANTE: "The object of education is to ensure the man's eternity."

MARAÑON: "Education is an overcoming ethical instincts."

SPENCER: "The role of education is to prepare the full life."

Organization.-Sea management, or personal or social, education is
seen by some as a means of structuring and management.
In a sense, has similarities with the idea of improvement,
because it is carrying out an order, usually linked to
Aristotle: "Education is to direct the feelings of pleasure and
pain to the ethical order. "

Herbart: "Education is the art of constructing, building and give the forms
necessary. "

4. Influence humana. "While all education involves an improvement,
the converse is not true. This leads to distinguish evolution: stimuli
produced by internal and external nature in general, the
education: internal and external stimuli produced by humans.
There is a difference between the development limited to natural and proper
action of education. This human influence is one of the points
emphasized by the authors:
O. Willmann: "Education is the influence foresight, guidance and training of
older men on the development of youth, with a view to making
participate in the assets that are the basis for society. "
NASSIF: "Education is the action of a real man on a whole man."

SPRANG: "Education is transferred to another, with unselfish love, the resolution of
develop from the inside out, all his ability to receive and shape values. "

Zaragüeta: "Education is the act of a spirit about himself or
other for the achievement of instructional and educational way. "

5. Intentionality
.- This characteristic is highly correlated with the
above. Education, strictly speaking, is presented as an action
planned and systematized, while acknowledging the educational impact
unintended actions.

COHN: "Education is the conscious and continuous influence on youth ductile
for the purpose of forming it. "

Dilthey: "Education is the activity planned by which teachers
are the psychic life of beings in development. "

Planchard: "Education is a systematic activity carried on by
adults on children and adolescents in particular, to prepare them for
full life in a particular environment. "

Reference to specifically human characteristics has already .---
said that education is uniquely human task, but within the
man addresses the most specifically human
(Will, understanding), not for other changes that could
affect the morphology, aesthetics, chemical composition, etc., which
be tasks of Medicine and Hygiene, for example. While it
noted that the close relationship between the physical and psychic
impact on the educational tasks that affect many aspects
the body and instincts. (4) In conclusion we can say that the
Education is mindful of the higher functions of man, but
enlargement also of the lower.
GONZÁLEZ ALVAREZ: "Education is a qualitative maturation of
powers of man which is more suitable for the proper exercise of its
specific operations. "

Joly: "Education is the set of efforts that are intended to be given to a
full possession and proper use of the various faculties. "

RUFINO WHITE: "Education is development, rationally conducted, the
specific faculties of man. "

7. Means of support or assistance for the perfect development of man-La
Education is the only possibility of human fulfillment, but it can not
be a simple imposition, but that requires voluntary cooperation
to materialize. Another principle is equally valid: "education is not
is powerful and has its limits ":
Debesse: "Education does not create man, helps to create himself."

HUBERT: "Education is a protection which aims to lead the subject
until you have no need for guardianship. "

Tusquets: "Education is the update that helps human radically
the learner so that, within its capabilities and personal
circumstances, live with greater dignity and efficiency. "

8. Individualización. Processes "Since education is a process
happens in a person, even if the result of encouragement or support

provided by others, can be understood as individual average

Kerschensteiner: "Education is to distribute the culture, so that
man arranges their values in their conscience and their own way, according to
their individuality. "

9. Process
socialization: - Man while education will
incorporating culture: acquires language, customs, ideas, norms
moral force in society. This social aspect appears as
essential for the same development staff before mentioned:
COPPERMANN: "Education is an action produced by the exigencies
of society, inspiring and model, in order to train individuals
According to his ideal of "man himself."

Durkheim: "Education is dedicated to developing the learner's
physical states, intellectual and mental demands of his political society
social environment to which it is intended. "

HUXLEY: "Education is to train young people in
freedom, justice and peace. "

SUCHODOLSKI: "The essence of education lies mainly in
be a man capable of rising to the level of modern civilization is,
to make sense of life in this new world. "

Many of the definitions provided insist on more than one aspect of

above, but for brevity we have chosen not to repeat them.
Other notes or characteristics of education can be listed to give a

more complete picture of its extent and consequences. Trying to tell a synthesis

that education is:

1. Essentially dynamic process between two people.
2. Aimed at the improvement of the individual as a person.
3. You are looking for active and aware of the personal in the world
4. It means an ongoing and unfinished process throughout life
5. It provides the means and support necessary to achieve goals
man, based on the conscious acceptance and creator of the subject.
6. The resulting state, but in constant improvement, is a
sustainable situation-no-final, other than the original state-of-natural
There are also definitions more consistent with the current technology

Gattegno the following definition: "Education for the individual
is the growth of your FC, so that their development represents a

integration of all elements of K, giving it the opportunity to proceed
an extension of A. "(5)

The current definitions of education tend to focus on new areas:
education as a model system, education as a form of communication
cybernetically interpreted:

BELTH: "To educate is to convey the models by which the world is
explicable. "

Couffignal: "Education is a mechanism by which humans receive
information in order to fix them in memory. "


Every word itself implies a sense that determines and
characterized. When this word is an existing reality and not a mere abstraction,
is realized by a number of factors that determine it as reality. Let
what are the elements that make education a reality and not merely a

1. Activity
Education is dynamic, meaning that in itself implies the
principle of action. But this action is not momentary or temporary, but ongoing
and continues as it seeks to distant targets. If one considers that the objectives
of education are unattainable in its fullness, the proposed activity will
achieving sub-goals and necessary, but not enough to be
considered as an endpoint.

Suppose a person begins in X0, through educational activities
first come to X1, X2 by the second, etc. The subject is succeeding stages
successive needed to reach the final point, but not enough. Equation
would be given as:

XO + X1 + X2 + ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. + XN = 00

Obviously this formulation tends to infinity (Xn) and during the process
education, although it is considered equal to the temporality of the life of the person
no time to reach the "total sum sufficient."

Some authors do not consider this way of thinking logically because they assume that
thus educational problems are ambiguous and, ultimately, empty
sense. "Most of the philosophies of education in the past
considered on the whole child, and then, by extension, the Adolescent. Today
tends to consider that the education of man tends not to stop, and indeed no

never stop, becoming only according to the different ages,
abilities, interests, etc.. "(6)

We will not go far in this problem, we shall see in speaking
the psychology of children and adolescents and when we raise the problem of
lifelong learning. The important thing is to acknowledge the dynamic nature of education
and the importance of the action.

We understand the action as the operation of an element of the agent by
which modifications are made to another individual. (7) However, the operation of a
agent element may be purely material, and the amendments
have a physical. You can have physical and psychological in nature and variations
introduced are fully within the field of behavioral psychology inferior by
example the training of an animal. Finally, the agent acts solely on
coordinate spiritual (8) and the changes coming in the area of personality
the subject. This last action is the only one who bears the title of education. (9)

We have connecting with an earlier idea: the individual agent must act
taking into account the spontaneity of the student, and the process will be based,
then, in freedom. On the contrary, it may be that its action is focused
toward the goods of culture and as a result of his element conglutinante
activity is the authority. There should be therefore, a priori, the agent's action
on the "other" as alienating, because you can combine both positions.

DEVAUD clarifies the idea: "We say that in school the teacher is
active, the student should apply equally, or to establish the relationship linking
this activity, that the student should be led to think for himself what the
teacher teaches, and that both should be subject to the truth ". (10)

2. Intentionality
The intent is intimately linked to the activity. The intention refers
to act, though sometimes interpreted as directed to the object, ie we say both
that the educational act is intentional, as our intention is education. The
our sense of intentionality is the first: the education activity is
intentional. Moreover, as a way to focus particular attention, so this
intention is a conscious character. This clarification is very important because
otherwise you can make an unconscious or even more "agnoseología" and
sense of true education exchange outright. The intent is not
inherent to the educational event, but, while it is reaching it is
when education becomes meaningful.

There is no doubt that Homo habilis, homo erectus "and, of course, the" homo
sapiens "carried out educational action by which the race was from
cultural strata to another or improving the species, but is easy to foresee that in
education, at least in principle, there was no intention in all actions. The
she observes and pays attention to the acts of the largest and simple observation will
learning, is reaching values, in short, is being perfected. The

agent element of education is making education unconsciously
child culture goods reach it and stay, but neither party
"Direct their consciousness towards the object." No one can speak of intentionality.

This education "unconscious" has not disappeared and part of education
that the child acquires is aintencional. The man lives immersed in a reality físicoespiritual
which is known as the "world." This world that surrounds and
coexists with the man is divided into three orders: nature, society and culture.
Each education for the sake of "being there": this is education
cosmic (Nassif). The climate, landscape, location affect the person and give
a peculiar stamp. The coexistence and proximity to other people determine
also a type of training: there are rules, guidelines which are
modeling the subject. Finally, the culture as it reproduced or created by the
man in view of values "(11) influences unconsciously and achieves a degree of

Intent when the man made culture, but then it improves the
it comes in contact with her for the mere fact of their presence. The "intent"
is a fact, but we believe that true education is an intentional process,
in response to certain values to which it tends. In a moral sense and
logically there is no doubt, but even in the linguistic aspect is clearly the notion of
intentionality: "the notion of will, action, the relationship between
thought and action, the relationship between the spirit of a person and his body,
difference between obeying a convention or merely possess a rule and a habit;
all these problems concur in the notion of intention. " (December) Intentionality
makes the educational process and basically have an order form.
"There is therefore a marked difference between the education that each gets to live
with others, and deliberate education of the young. In the first case, education is
incidental, it is natural and important, but does not express the reason for the association. "(13).

3. Systematism
We have defined so far two characteristic features of education: activity
and intentionality, but, can there be an intentional activity aimed at an end without
there is a scheme? The fact that this activity requires locate targets
chaining all acts and not to give up some predictable stages. The objectives are
being achieved through the implementation of a system, ie, through a range
interrelated elements harmonically conjugated to the same goal.
Before proceeding should be differentiated "open system" of the "closed system"
. The second is deterministic in itself gives no option to anything outside of what has been done and
trite. The first, by contrast, tends toward new frontiers, builds, and
Ultimately, leads to creativity. The latter is particularly suitable for

So far it has been said that is more representative of systematism
in the directivity ("direct supervision"). Today there are attempts
nondirective pedagogy in which the systematic arises from the relations
interindividual and group, and aims to foster communication and

exchanges among group members. Whether executive educator who
education or organize a group that is governed by the non-directivity,
there are always rules incorporated in the system and focused on objectives
intentionally provided. (14) As Dewey said: "There is a danger
constant of the material is merely the systematic instruction
subject of study in schools, isolated from the subjects of experience
life. We are willing to lose sight of the permanent social interests. "

Whatever the philosophical doctrine, social or moral to which the pedagogue
register, there is always systematic.

Superimposed on this activity, there is also deliberate and systematic
spontaneous and incidental education (education cosmic), which for the Moero
made to involve the man being perfected. The important is the first
"Systematic" but also the second and so there is essentially
seek a balance between both, but mainly, or at least on point
starting in the first.

Etymologically the word "education" comes from the Latin verb "educate" as - are ", meaning" farm "" nursing "or" feed. "
Some authors have discussed the origin of the Latin verb "educate-is-ere," meaning "drawn from within," "inside-out
out ", which amounts to consider education as a developmental task of construction. Afrim Tusquets on
possible dual etymological, if appropriate from the Latin word "educere" we should speak of "educción (educito) instead of
education. (Tusquets, J.: "Theory of education." Teaching Spanish, Madrid 1972, on our part we adhere to this
Cousinet, R.: What's new education? Ed Kapelusz, Buenos Aires, 1959
Durkheim, E.: Education et Sociologie. Alcan Paris 1926
Nor should we forget how extremely difficult it is justified only some specific functions such as human. in
Actually, all the roles of men are affected by their condition of being human. Even more common with
Animals: feeding, breeding, are perfectly conditioned man in many aspects than in any
case appear in animals. It is no exaggeration therefore to say that all men are human functions,
thus breaking the traditional scholastic division on the subject.
And Dottrens Mialaret, who cite this definition clarifies the terminology previously Gattegno. FC is the "field
knowledge "(true of cognition) which consists of a series of elements. K is called on all common elements
FC group, which are chosen according to the group and time. The sum of the experiences contained in the CF, group
could be much larger than the K, is what he calls conglomerate (A) of all FC, and denoted by edge (B) to what
remains after you have defined K A..
FERRAT MORA, J., Dictionary of Philosophy Ed Sudamericana, Buenos Aires, 1971, 2nd reprint of the 5th. ed.
In the case of self-education, if we admit that there is pure self-education, the agent introduced by its own
process, variations in itself. However we will return later on this concept.
By "spiritual" everything that belongs to the upper psyche, eager to differentiate it from the part of the psyche
that is correlated with the animals, capable of training.
View HUBERT, R. Treaty of Education in El Ateneo, Buenos Aires, 1970. 6a. Chapter III issue, the differences
between training, domestication and education.
DEVAUD, E.: "But a scuola secondo I'ordine attiva Christian." La scuola Edittice Agazzi. The 4th Edic., Brescia, 1955.
Rickert, E.: Science cultural and natural science. Work cit.
HAMPSHIRE, S.: Thought and Action. Cited by Ferrater Mora in Dictionary of Philosophy
DEWEY, J.: Democracy and education. Ed Losada, Buenos Aires, 1971.
See the work of Michaud: Institutional Analysis and Pedagogy. Laia, Barcelona, 1972.
Work cit. pp. 12


Fermoso, Estebanez, Paciano

What is epistemology?

It is a philosophical discipline that studies the knowledge, lessons and
conditioning, the possibility and reality. Unlike formal logic, which
object is the formulation of thought, and psychology, whose relationship with the
Scientific knowledge is level and studied as perceptual process as
intellectual process, spiritual, epistemology is the contents of thought,
nature and significance. But above all, the approach to epistemology
is philosophical and the scientific psychology.

Since Piaget founded the Institute of Genetic Epistemology, science
psychological studies the origin and evolution of cognitive processes such as
psychic phenomena, and is related to philosophical epistemology, which presents
material suggesting new problems and to develop and clarify issues
that philosophers did not suspect pasts.

Apart from the philosophical literature is common knowledge that the word
by "knowing" and speaks of the kinds of knowledge, that is, classes
specifically human knowledge. Max Scheler devoted two of his works
epistemological issues and reported this new way of expression. (1)

As a philosophical discipline, epistemology has been the core of the problem
philosophy from Descartes to the beginning of this century, through
disparate approaches, such as rationalism, empiricism, transcendentalism, the
idealist, positivist, the irrational and vitalist philosophical analysis. Some have
epistemology considered part of metaphysics, because its purpose would be
be aware of in this case it is called special metaphysics. Others rise from
and give more range of autonomous philosophical discipline.

The historical names have been multiple: epistemology, which is today
more accepted, epistemology, metaphysics particular theory of knowledge ... For
us the last is the least problematic and the one most suited to our intent.
Epistemology is simply a theory of knowledge.

When introductions to the sciences, especially social or human, is
any part or chapter devoted to epistemology, the scope that is applied, is
question is what kind of knowledge or know is that these social science or what
kinds of knowledge are possible on a single object or reality, especially when
the object was part of ancient philosophy and sought to split into several classes
of knowledge: technical, scientific, philosophical ... This is the case of science
education, covering a number of disciplines or different kinds of knowledge about
the phenomenon called "education." Epistemology tells us what the category

own knowledge of each discipline, and in our case we will say that kind of knowledge
is the "theory of education."

Kinds of knowledge in science education

The knowledge considered vulgar worship or not-common are: the technical,
scientific, philosophical and theological. Is sufficiently accepted nomenclature that
establishes synonymy between classes of knowledge and cognitive formality. "Formality"
denotes then the formal object of knowledge, the aspect under which we study the
same reality. For education is a quad formality technique,
the scientific, philosophical and theological. Technical knowledge would be when we know the art
educate, how to carry out or have education, teaching methodology

or normatively how to organize a school. He became a category
scientific knowledge, when systematized knowledge about education, we use
inductive methods of research and explain or understand the phenomenon.
It would be philosophical knowledge, if knowledge has "finality" if we are not content
empirical and experimental models and if, in short, our knowledge of
education has the characteristics that philosophers ask for your work. And
Finally, it would be a theological knowledge as long as our knowledge about education
seek explanations biblical, dogmatic, religious ...
Technical knowledge about education is "teaching", the "school organization", the
"Educational technology, scientific knowledge is the science of pedagogy or education;
philosophical knowledge is the philosophy of education, and theological knowledge, theology
education. All these disciplines are studying education, but under a different aspect
a different cognitive level, under a different formality. If we establish a
comparison, we could say that speaking car mechanic or technician workshop
automobiles, physical science degree in automotive or scientist, the philosopher of
movement and the theologian who uses the mutability to inquire about being
motionless prime mover.

Technical knowledge about education, as knowledge, has the same
characteristics that any technical knowledge, these are: application of scientific knowledge, is
concrete and practical knowledge beneficial realization of the scientific,
functional intentionality. The technical knowledge has replaced knowing doing?, To
theory with practice, to contemplation by the action. The coach knows how to do one thing
but does not know why it is done well. The degree of technical knowledge are the first level, the
performance of the body through his hands, the second forging instruments
man managed to boost its power, the third, the achievement of
machines or automation, the fourth modification of the natural course of events or
industry. The three most common meanings of technical knowledge are all
procedures that uses science to obtain certain results, the good
accumulation of cultural and material progress, and perfect command of a plot
or cultural practice.

Scientific knowledge is knowledge about education methodical, systematic
and unified, who understands and explains the phenomena observed. Scientific knowledge is
philosophical independent since the mid-nineteenth century, although the movement toward

autonomy stems from the Renaissance was in the second half of the nineteenth century
emerged pure scientific knowledge, separate from the philosophical knowledge on the same
object. Thus, for example, was called sociology of scientific knowledge
social phenomena and social philosophy, his philosophical knowledge. The history of
scientific knowledge of social phenomena and social philosophy, to his knowledge
philosophical. The history of scientific knowledge begins with Aristotle, who conceives
as demonstration continues with the Renaissance, which means as a description, and
ends with the typical requirement corrigibilidad nineteenth century. Scientific knowledge on
education pedagogy has been called, or tried agología driving-are
understood, the child-science education, agogía, identical or Greek root

Education philosophical knowledge is a theoretical knowledge or
contemplative, and systematized with a desire for universality, which seeks the ultimate reality.
If the word "science" has changed semantically in history, has much
changed the word "philosophy", (2) that evolution is the history of systems
philosophical. The word "philosophy of education" thus has many meanings.

The theological knowledge about the characteristics and education and was set
by Max Scheler called "knowledge of salvation" (The knowledge and culture), "know
salvation "is knowledge about the fate of the world, becoming
extratemporal, on its operation supreme, essential and existential. Is knowing
whose aim is the divinity, and is opposed to scientific and religious knowledge. Knowledge
theological education is a requirement of being transcendent of man,
conditions a higher vision of the educational process. The theological knowledge about
education studies the subject of religious education, its agents, its meaning
socio-theological, religious institutions and its projection on education.

What is a theory?

Etymologically the word theory means in Greek, contemplation, or the
unselfish and pure thoughts. Aristotle divided theoretical philosophy, practical and
poetic theory was intended to achieve the knowledge as such, not a target
practical, and included natural philosophy or physics, mathematics and metaphysics. Theory
was therefore the highest philosophy and pure human thought.

Philosophical knowledge currently hardly used the word "theory" has
found a place of honor, however, within the scientific world. Or better yet,
"Theory" is rare in philosophy, but is used very often in science,
ie the meaning of theory can be philosophical or scientific, as deduced from the
First approach to the subject.

The senses in which uses are manifold: as pure knowledge, as
conceptual base to guide practice, (3) as understood in natural science. The
common language uses it as "a set of related problems" as a framework
conceptual highly organized, unified and hierarchical, with little reference to
world of practice, as a set of rules or precepts that guide collection
various activities, basing the art.

Scientific theory, which is now the most common paradigm, has the sense of
natural science, which holds the primacy and purity of physics, which has been the
oldest in history and who first reached adulthood. O'Connor defines
and scientific theory:

"It is a set of interrelated laws where the term" law "is used in
normal scientific acceptance to describe the uniformity observable
nature, being hypothetical-deductive method ... the standard procedure for
established laws. " (4)

And some pages later:

"A theory is a hypothesis and verified or, more commonly, a set
of these logically related hypotheses, whose main function is
explain the contents thereof. " (5)

The philosophy of science always includes the notion of law or substitutions more or
less accurate to talk about this concept theory. In physics, law "is a relationship
algebraic symbols to represent numbers between-measure, or a relationship between
varying magnitude, or even a symbolic representation of the results of
large number of experiences. " (6) Max Planck, the German scientist famous: "A
proposition that provides permanent and unbreakable link between physical quantities
measurable, so that one can calculate these quantities, when
have measured the others. " Poincaré: "It is a differential equation."

Scientific theory is a relationship between various laws relating to acts
conjugable each other. The theory is about the law, which the law is regarding
isolated phenomena or facts of experience. The scientific theory is an elaboration
so complete that line with the philosophy or philosophy has become. J Dewey
also of this opinion:

"When science is not a mere revision of particular facts discovered
over the world, but a general attitude towards him ... he enters the field of
philosophy. " (7)

Today it is the philosophy of science who are concerned with the nature of the theory,
because scientists admit that beyond their means.

Scientific theory, as expressed in the scholarly definitions,
has the constant interrelation of laws concerning facts treated in a
Overall, prior establishment of hypotheses verified conclusive in law,
need for large number of experiments to test the hypothesis and deduce the law
aplicación sobre todo al mundo mensurable y físico, lógica conexionante y
pure knowledge, to express abstract propositions, need to apply the
mood empirical facts or observable phenomena. Of all these constants
we can deduce that the theory is empirical and logical knowledge.

Scientific theory is a testable hypothesis or a set of hypotheses
logically related, the theory can not remain a mere assumption,
Greek word that means "hypothesis" but that has to be checked or verified
empirically. Scientific hypothesis must meet certain conditions to be
authentic: a course must be addressed and explained, if true, will
observed consequences, to be valid, the expected consequences duty
occur. Own epistemological method of theoretical knowledge through
inductive hypothesis is verified with its classic, steps or phases.

The functions of the theory have been variously been proposed as
had one or another conception of the nature of science. The descriptive function
was not chronologically the first, but the allocated since Galileo, F. Bacon and
Newton science demanded a guarantee as the eighteenth century illustration
accepted this model of scientific knowledge. The descriptive function emphasizes the
observation, the finding of facts, inferences and deducted them
methodical repetition of particular phenomena. The scientific theory that has this
context is logically a descriptive theory.

The predictive function was the primitive scientific vision and consecrated
definitely Aristotle, who could do it, because it required immutability and fixity in
nature being always governed by the same laws and linked to the causation
as a beginning of something.

The explanatory function fits perfectly into the contemporary
of science, as capable of constantly self-correct as an attempt
continued to approach reality. The classical division of sciences Dilthey
nature and science of the spirit has kept the explanatory role in science
natural and comprehensive function in the spirit. The explanation that the philosopher
German, an explanation (Erklärung).

However, the explanation is typical of natural science and theory
scientific, strictly speaking, it is also typical of this kind of scientific knowledge is
logical to conclude that the explanatory function is one of the payable to any theory
natural science. The scientific explanation eliminates the confusion and get it
linking what we already know with what we try to clarify.

Scientific explanations are usually valid for four classes. The first type
explanation is given when we explain a single anomalous or group of them,
to show that the anomaly is not an exception but an example of a higher law
general than we were driving, is an account feature
perfect little science and developed. The second type of explanation is
explanation of natural law as an example of a more general law than the first;
In short, the theory that explains according to this second pattern, a theory is very
general, without losing touch with reality to be ethereal, this type of
is the most logical explanation and principal in the natural sciences. The third type of
explanation is building a model to clarify how to operate a set of
fact, very common use in the physical sciences, which has been transferred
recently and even the biological sciences to the social, this type of explanation

is only auxiliary in science, because researchers do not conform
with such meager achievement, and practically its role is to suggest possible new
directions. The fourth type of explanation is the one that explains two things, filling the
previously existing gap between them, which may be empty space or time, in
genetic or evolutionary science is often this kind of explanation, which is
also poor in natural sciences. Examples of genetic sciences are biology,
psychology, anthropology, history and economics. This would lead us to the conclusion
that as scientific knowledge they depart from the natural sciences,
explanatory theories do not have the rigor and accuracy that they are common.

The theory, philosophical knowledge, is philosophy, not science. Therefore,
provided that the philosophers speak of "theory of knowledge or expressions
like, do not use the word theory at a level of scientific knowledge. And always
that scientists make use of this word is to discuss findings,
inductions, laws and logical sets of laws, going more in the field of
philosophy of science, that science itself. Max Scheler spoke of a cult to know,
it would be an interregnum between scientific knowledge and the strictly human, somewhat
Philosophically, though not essentially metaphysical.

In summary, the epistemological status of theory is closer to the world
of philosophy than of science, is nearly philosophy, philosophy is not primarily
metaphysics is the philosophy of science.

What is a theory of education?

The educational sciences are social sciences. We return again to try
theory approach to scientific education, but if it were possible,
conclude that educational theory is more philosophical than scientific knowledge. Not
However, it is not so easy to hard, when added to the general difficulties one
specifically, what is that from the very nature of science
education which can be considered human or social sciences or comprehensive,
but not science. The radical distinction between natural sciences and
education is that the educational process is not a natural process, but human, which
means that on the laws governing natural phenomena should be added
governing the vegetative and sensory phenomena, and especially those concerning
specifically human phenomena, because this kind of phenomena belongs
education. There may be a natural science that studies a phenomenon that

Some believe that the late development of the human sciences is due to
simple observation that has been able to clarify a few of the issues in them
raised, while in nature has imposed more precisely by
experimentation. Each teacher has been able to know quite deeply
their students without resorting to methods close to the inductive and experimental.
We want, in short, fixed once and for all that scientific theory is
effect only in science but not in the humanities. And this further complicates
over the job of epistemology with which we intend to know what is a theory
education. Chain does not end here with difficulties; human phenomena not

are only natural phenomena but are also such phenomena.
Psychological, for example, strive to prove that the psyche is a
continuity between what is natural and what is specifically human, the man
is separate from nature, nature is also in part. Hence there
have understood the educational process as a natural phenomenon, such as
H. Rousseau thought Spencer, his error lies in the allocation of natural character
education, but excluding the specifically human in the process.

The laws of human processes, one of which is education, not
have the fixity and immutability inevitability governing natural phenomena;
human laws are subject to change and modification, and no one knows yet
extent depend on natural laws. The laws of human phenomena
are affected by the structure of society, vital factor in humanization.
The social structure determines and modifies the educational process and can discover
potential than in other socio-educational organizations were covert.

The science of education hampered the possibility of experimentation
to verify the assumptions of any theory that begins, this difficulty prevents
educational theory is the same sign as the natural scientific theory. Of the three stages
TH Huxtley in that divided the history of science, education hardly
have reached the second, without even can be interpreted as a system
complex, interlinked causes and effects. The human sciences are "little more
that the natural history of man. " (8) On this ride the human sciences
educational theories, not on natural science, in a different category
historical development. From this stems the difficulty of locating in a clear classification,
educational theory.

Toward a conception of educational theory. Gowin (9) sets a minimum
conditions which must comply educational theory, these requirements can be
good methodological platform to approach the concept of theory
education. They are five: the educational process requires that an adult-the teacher-made
something with and for another person, the adult educator has a moral responsibility
in the educational process, educational theory has to consider the educational act, for
justify this act of education, educational theory is to clarify the human relation
between people, the educational theory has to keep in mind that the term of the act
Education is a human person and not changing a thing with the possibility of
manipulation. These requirements will answer various parts and chapters of this

The word "theory" which has a history of inaccuracy in the epistemological
natural sciences, becomes a vague word, vague and inaccurate, when
applies it to science education, why pretend it is almost a dream
epistemologically cataloging educational theory.

The theory of education is the foundation of educational practice that
abstract needs basic information, such as those who need the doctor and the engineer in
daily professional work. The medical theory and engineering are more systematized
and elaborate, because its foundation is made up of biological sciences and

natural sciences respectively. In the case of medicine, biological knowledge in
as such, is close to a human science, although it is not in its entirety, as
strictly natural sciences-physics, chemistry ... - are your assistants and your warranty.
O'Connor reduced, in this case, educational theory "to the parts of psychology
on perception, learning, concept formation, motivation, etc.,
which relate directly to the work of the teacher. This vague sense of
term ..., theory means a general conceptual framework for a change of
practical activity. " (10) education theory is the theoretical justification of
practical activities of the educational process.

Types of educational theories. The first type is constituted by empirical theories
education, which are based in psychology, whose history gives rise to two
different versions: the first is one that is based on pre-scientific psychology;
the second in scientific psychology. The theories underlying educational practice
are not justified by the success, more or less loud. Theories
previous educational development of pre-scientific psychology presuppose
conjectures and intuitions more or less successful, with no useful educational practice
beneficial guarantee the corresponding theory, which used to be after practice, and
not vice versa. Herbartian theory was ingenious, but erroneous, and his theory
surety out of practice. (11) In general, prior to educational theories
advent of psychology as a science -1879, foundation Lab
Leipzig-leaving aside the facts and imagined unintelligible adaptations
metaphysical concepts. What was really interesting in this pre-scientific era
facts were practical tools that the theory had no validity and significance.

The birth of scientific psychology turned the focus, so that it
not practice that inspired the theory, but experimentation. Practice
had to be justified by a theory, it was reassessed by the departure of the former.
Although scientific psychology theory building permit
education, are not comparable to the theories of natural science, even
one wish to attribute to the psychology of Wundt the character of natural science.

A good example is formed by the learning theories that base
considerable number of educational theories, but none of them has
configured so absorbing and true rule requiring the other as less
convincing. Never put forward as incontrovertible based educational theories
in the human sciences, as may occur in the theories of natural science;
and the reasons are known.

The term "theory" is justified only in cases where we applied the
duly verified experimental findings in psychology or sociology
as educational. I do not think any educational theory that corresponds to the
sciences, and at least you can talk about educational theory
scientific or natural cut. In other words, there is some educational theory that
have convincing empirical grounding or pre-scientific or scientific, nor científiconatural
or social science. In an epistemological perspective this mean that
no educational theory properly deserves the adjective empirical, or that
Therefore, educational theories which have epistemological level is the scientist. Us

knowledge is by excluding religious and philosophical knowledge. The same theories
experimentalists, J. Dewey and Kiipatrick, they are not from a scientific standpoint,
but the word "experimental" means here the different realities
apparently suggested.

Axiological theories of education, where such exist, and are not experimental,
or natural science, but anthropological, ethical or metaphysical, as schools
axiological have one or another color.

The truth is that, although there is no axiological educational theories, there
theories that value judgments are a reality. Axiological theories are
those in which value judgments are the foundation of the practice, despite
that such judgments are almost always hidden. Much of the seemingly
axiological theories are induced more than slogans, that real value judgments
therefore imprecise value judgments is a source of intellectual confusion.

The third class of educational theories are metaphysical theories or
philosophical, which are the most common. The principle of excluded middle allows
make this assertion: if the educational theories are not empirical or axiological
necessarily be philosophical or metaphysical, which is consistent with the finding
according to which educational theory was closer to a philosophical knowledge that
natural science. The educational theories of thinkers dominated by
metaphysical theories are necessarily almost philosophical. Philosophical theories have been
Plato, Aristotle, scholastic, and Catholic spirituality have become more theory ...
Educational philosophers pay attention to education than teachers who have
been more on the surface of the taxonomic and policy. Furthermore, if we exclude
all Platonic or Aristotelian theories, we are left with very few theories

Just as we concluded on the general theory, which is more
close to the philosophical knowledge that the scientist, or constitutes a new form or
interregnum, we conclude that educational theories are not empirical knowledge,
but philosophical, or an intermediate category between science and philosophy, or issue
philosophy of science education. There is some educational theory that can
true experimentally verified hypothesis. When we include some chapters
under "empirical theory" or "anthropological theory, we are aware of
precarious scope of these adjectives.

1.The knowledge and culture. Revista de Occidente. Madrid 1934. Sociology of knowledge. Magazine
West. Madrid 1935.
2.VAN Peursen, CA philosophical orientation, Herder, Barcelona, 1975.

3. Gowin, DB "Can Educational Theory Practice guide" in Lucas, J. Ch What Philosophy of
Education. MacMillan, 1969.
4.Introducción to the philosophy of education. Paidos, Buenos Aires, 1971.
5.Op. Cit. Pag 134
6.SIMARD, E. Nature and scope of the scientific method, Gredos, Madrid, 1961.
7. "Philosophy as the General Theory of Education", in Lucas, op. cit. pag. 75
8th O'Connor. Op. Page 150

9.Op. Cit. pp. 211 et seq
10.Op. Cit. pp. 112
11.HARDIE, CD Truth and Fallacy in Educational Theory, Cambridge, 1942.


Schaff, Adam

Epistemology of social science.

From the point of view of sociology of knowledge there are two major
key areas of human knowledge, which is what we consider Sciences
Natural and Social Sciences.

This distinction between knowledge of nature and of society
based on the specific position with the subject and the object in the process

In any process of knowledge there are two entities: one is the one who knows and
the other is going to be known. The first is called the knower and the
second object of knowledge. The subject and the object of knowledge engage a
relationship called cognitive process. This relationship yields a product that is the

"Let us start with the traditional triad that appears in each analysis
process knowledge (....) knowing subject and object of knowledge
knowledge as a product of cognition. " (1)

However, the relationship between subject and object, typical of the Social Sciences
is very different from that prevailing in the natural sciences.

To clarify this difference we see who takes the role of subject and
object in each of those areas of knowledge.

The sciences of nature. Here, as elsewhere, the subject
knowing is an individual or group of individuals. This man seeks out a
object that is nature. The study of Natural Science is performed by a
subject which develops in society, and its object of study is outside
this: the knowing subject is man in society and the object of knowledge is a
certain natural phenomena.

Social Sciences. The cognitive subject of man remains
society, but the object of knowledge is the same man in society, or more
accuracy, the society of men. In this case, the subject is part of the object, the
subject is product and producer of the subject matter of Social Sciences.

In the natural sciences, the man approaches the study of an object that is
out of it and not the product of their activity in the social sciences man
deals with the study of an object which is part and product of its activity

Thus, from the standpoint of the Theory of Knowledge, there are two
Differences between Social and Natural Sciences, the first lies in the
different positions to keep the subject and the object in each of the two, the
Second, is that while nature is not created by man, the
society is the product of men that she has produced.

When an individual is given the task of obtaining some knowledge in
Natural Sciences, takes his action with a body of knowledge that he
has in advance, this knowledge is part of the knowledge that society in its
has set. The subject, together with a part of knowledge that mankind has
accumulated during its development, the task facing, for example, to explain
biological reproduction, the geological eras or disintegration of the atom. In
any case the researcher is aware that he, as representative of the
society can not exist and yet these natural phenomena will

Indeed, the natural scientist knows that he is not part of their subject
study, knowledge that this object was not created by him or anyone and
that therefore, his position affective against its object of study can be neutral,
it were objective. The subject can not impose on the evolution of nature for any purpose,
no purpose, since it does not depend on his will.

To the extent that the object of knowledge of natural sciences, or
nature, not a product of the action of the knowing subject, ie man,
the scientist is related to nature than their product. Therefore, the
researcher was given the task of knowledge of nature, without type ratings

The social scientist for his part, faces an object of knowledge that has
been created by mankind. The social scientist, like that of nature,
has a part of human knowledge: but in this case the subject is confronted with an object
which is a part; object, being created by beings with free will, has a
specific purpose against which it is difficult not to draw affective ratings.

The development of this subject is done in a particular group, which
it produces emotional preferences towards certain things. For example, a subject that
have been educated in an environment of respect for authority, private property,
inculcándosele the love of money is unlikely to have a neutral position when
are comparative studies of capitalism and communism, obviously this
subject will be affected from the outset on a host of prejudices and
sentimental values that bind tightly to the capitalist system. The
society creates the subject.

Any subject learns to love the social group that is part and shows
certain preference for his group, in his research. This can be
observed even in the most serious social scientific work.

Thus, as society is the product of men, and these in turn are
product of society, any social scientist seeks his own ends, claiming
impose its objectives for the whole of society.

In conclusion we can say that, because of the different types of process
cognition that occur in the field of Natural and Social Sciences, character
the knowledge of society and nature, is different. This difference in
scientific knowledge has consequences that include the problem of method
Social Sciences; its ultimate consequences are in the political project
each implies social research.

On the issue of knowledge of society that just outlined,
beginning at the time when the same cognitive relation is interpreted
in very different ways.

According to A. SCHAFF., (2) the multiple interpretations that have been made of
cognitive process can be grouped into three theoretical models. "If, for process
knowledge, we mean a specific interaction between the knower and
object of knowledge, which results in mental products
call knowledge, interpretation of this relationship is only conceivable in the
picture of some theoretical models. This typology is by no means
speculative, since each of the models have found their illustration
historically concrete existing philosophical. " (3)

If we consider the subject-subject-knowledge, we find three
models of cognition: 1. Mechanical materialism or empiricism, 2. The
idealism, 3. Dialectical materialism. In each model the process elements
cognitive and play different roles, each model sets its own criteria
objectivity and truth in the Social Sciences.

The three current epistemological

We saw that knowledge is a process in which two poles or
fundamental ends, "the subject and the object-and which emerges a product
identified: knowledge.

In the field of Social Sciences found three models
fundamental cognitive relation. Each model corresponds to one of three
most important philosophical movements from the point of view of knowledge,
have existed. The first two are antagonistic, contradictory
completely opposite, while the third rescues the most valid of the two
first and becomes different model.

In each of the models we will see how the process of knowledge
consider the individual, the subject and object, and the relationship between them. We will see
also what is truth for each stream and an explanation of why
knowledge of society is not uniform.

Mechanistic materialism

This "first model has behind it the mechanistic conception of the theory of
reflection "(4)

An individual is, for mechanical materialism, an isolated too.

The mechanistic view that the subject, in the knowledge relation is a
passive, contemplative, receptive and isolated. The subject does not perform any action
aimed to know the object of knowledge. The object is the active entity
relationship, and who acts on the apparatus responsive to the subject.

The process of understanding the mechanistic materialism begins in the object.
This object has certain characteristics that emanate, emerge and travel through the
space for expression in the subject's perceptual apparatus, this, being a liability are
limited to receive and record impressions of the object.

It is said that this model is based on the theory of reflection, suppose, for
example, that the purpose of knowledge is a focus, in this case the focus emanates light,
which is printed on the visual apparatus of the subject, it thus becomes a being who only
reflects the characteristics (light) emanating from the object (focus).

This knowledge model emphasizes the objective element of the relationship
cognitive, but obscures the subjective aspect to reduce man to a biological
whose activity is limited to perceptual functions.

Knowledge is created by the subject, who also transmitted to the
subject. In this sense, the actual knowledge, that is, the truth is something hidden in
the object. The truth will be established forever and forever, is an "essence"
immutable, eternal, usually inaccessible to man.

Mechanistic materialism theorists argue that knowledge of
society is discussed for each of the individual subjects have differences in their
perceptual apparatus, as not all biological organisms are the same, but
each individual has differences from others. Being the perceptive apparatus the
only means of intellect of the subject and the surrounding reality, the differences
perceptual apparatus underlie the differing appraisals as men on
the world.

Figure 1 shows a graphical display of the mechanistic model
cognitive process. The person listed as an "S" capitalized, the object appears
as an "O" capitalized. The circle enclosing the object in the diagram means
that in this case, the object is active, the arrow indicates the direction in which knowledge
is performed.

Mechanical materialism MODEL

Figure 1

As the oldest philosophical and has the widespread
achieved in the form of religious ideas, idealism is a difficult power
mix. Different schools have had many philosophical idealist
differences between them, especially in regard to the design of the individual,
criterion of truth and causes of differences in the knowledge society.

Almost all philosophical schools idealists conceive the individual as a
isolated, from your idea, creates reality. This movement considers that the subject
is the active part of the cognitive relation. The subject performs the action, not only
to know the object but also to create it. The object is an entity that depends
entirely rational will of the subject, being the acting on the object;
here the object does not exist outside of the rationality of the subject.

"If the first model, passive and contemplative, the prevailing view in the
subject-object relationship in the second model, an idealist and activist, is produced every
contrary, the dominance or exclusivity, returns to the knower who perceives the
object of knowledge and its production. " (5)

As noted above, the idealism in general is not a criterion
truth because it was not possible to state this so that summarize the
different conceptions of the various schools idealists.

A branch of idealism holds that individuals are affected by certain
constraints, forcing them to create a different kind of knowledge of
society. Thus, the socio-historical knowledge is not uniform because
individuals are subject to various constraints.

The religious idea of God clearly illustrates the idealism: there is a being
powerful and omnipresent that from his own idea, and created man
world. The man, being the privileged of creation, given the opportunity
contact him through meditation and prayer. If this man has
away from material temptations, and through his idea, has approached the idea
God, it will reward changing circumstances in their favor.

This idealistic view is somewhat similar to the idealist philosophical system
Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel created in the eighteenth century. The German philosopher said
that there is an Absolute Spirit which manifested itself through its own idea: the idea
absolute. This Absolute Spirit was a local developer and manager of the universe, but
This idea needed spirit and manifest. In this way the story is, for
Hegel, the realization of the Absolute Idea mundane.

With respect to idealism, it should be clear that this trend emphasizes the
subject as part of the process of knowledge. In this sense, philosophy
idealist means an advance over the mechanistic materialism, but the
disadvantage of idealism against materialism is that this current causes
objective reality disappear.

Figure 2 shows graphically the idealistic model of the cognitive relation.
The process of understanding starts here illustrate the subject, which appears
represented by an "S" capitalized; the circle enclosing the subject means that
the active part of the relationship is the subject. The object appears as an "O" capitalized.
The double arrow indicates the one hand, the sense in which knowledge is made and
on the other, indicates that the object and reality are created by the subject.

Models IDEAL


Dialectical materialism

Dialectical Materialism of the fact that the individual is not
is isolated, on the contrary, as science has shown the individual
Man is a social being, but is not considered so by the simple fact that living
in society.

Dialectical Materialism holds that man is a social being because their
behavior is determined by their performance in society. Unlike other
animal species also live in associations of various individuals,
human behavior has only limited by instinct.

Charles Max, the founder of dialectical materialism, said: "The
circumstances make the man in the same way that the man makes the
circumstances. "

Thus, it is said that the individual is a social being because his conduct
is conditioned by the social milieu in which it operates and because man
in joint action, that is, social action, created the society itself and
transforms nature.

Dialectical materialism recognizes the subject's active role in the relationship
cognitive. Mechanistic materialism disagreeing and agreeing with the
idealism, dialectical materialism holds that knowledge is the product of
a specific practical activity that the subject performs on the object. The subject must
working on his order to meet him.

Because the subject, when you have to know its object, has an
range of knowledge accumulated by society as a whole, materialism
dialectical society says it is the real knower. "The man is in his
Actually the set of social relations, if this component is omitted
individual's social, men only remaining ties which cause
nature, which is false. " (6)

Indeed, to this current the individual is inseparable from society,
suffering from their conditions and transforms your action. Thus, even a
single individual who, at one point, part of the cognitive relation, the
subject of this relationship, creating knowledge for themselves, is a social being;
once again to paraphrase Karl Marx, the individual is the overall relationship

Accordingly, the subject is a social asset, product and producer, the
time, culture and hence their knowledge objects. It should be remembered
that, dialectical materialism, in the cognitive relation of Sciences
Social, the subject is immersed in its object of study.

Indeed, if the social sciences concerned with studying society and
Man is a social being, then, both the object as the subject of Sciences
Social, are the society.

Moreover, as society is changing, the
truth in the social sciences is not, as in the case of mechanistic materialism,
always a given thing, as dialectical materialism there are no truths
absolute or eternally valid for every place.

Dialectical materialism, according to A. Schaff says that truth is a
process, namely that truth is something that comes at a time and space
specific. The process of truth is infinite, never be finished, and the
true "scientific" in the Middle Ages, for example, was sustained as valid by

Scientists then, the truth of today shows that many of the
truths of the past, today they are not.

Now the truth has been set and considered as such,
but not the absolute truth.

Thus, the search for truth is a process that tends to infinity
set the absolute truth through the accumulation of relative truths.
Although the process of truth tends toward the absolute truth, it does not exist, the
truths valid in all times and all places are a likely target to
will never arrive.

In Social Sciences, a trial takes place in practice, these judgments or
statements are not suitable for experimentation. A statement becomes
true when it happens in the social reality which is held in that trial. By
example, historical materialism that the development of capitalism, as a
globally dominant system, leads to socialism, this view is true
that socialism as now exists and that this system grows and
stretching every day.

Man, knowing subject, is a social being conditioned by the
society, however, each subject is developed in a particular social group, by
what the social conditioning that he suffers is done within your group
particular. In their social group the individual develops specific emotional relationships, is
say, from your experience in a social nucleus, the man judges what is positive or
negative, according to the values prevailing in their environment. These ratings affective
condition the subject in his way of conceiving the world.

"The fact that the man, the subject, is the set of relations
social, has various consequences (... ..) In the field of knowledge. In
First, given joint in the world, or how to perceive, to distinguish
certain elements in it, the dynamics of perceptions, and so on., is related
with language and the conceptual apparatus that we receive from society, through
accumulated social experience ... "(7)

However, social groups build social experience
humanity in different ways are the social classes. Hence materialism
dialectical hold that knowledge of society is acute central
discussions because all knowledge is marked by social class in which
this knowledge is developed.

Thus, dialectical materialism attributed to the division of society
classes, the fact that knowledge of the companies is not welcomed by
different subjects with a degree of unanimity as given in Science

Imports make clear that dialectical materialism, as
for idealism, knowledge is the product of a specific activity that the subject

performed on the object, but on the other hand, along with materialism
mechanistic, accepts the existence of objective reality outside the will of the subject.

Dialectical materialism than the other two currents, as
considers the individual as a social being creates its object of study from its
community action through history. The subject as a social being creates social reality
but it exists even if the individual subject forbid.

While mechanical materialism reduces man to his pure
biological condition and idealism is reduced to its sensory activity, materialism
dialectic conceives the human being as the unity of the biological (individual) and social.

A graphical representation of the cognitive relation, as
dialectical materialism, is shown in Figure 3. following symbolic terminology
Venn Euler to the theory of sets in this graph shows the group "O"
as the object of knowledge of Social Sciences (society), the whole "S"
(Which is a subset of "O") represents the subject, the researcher performing social
scientific practice within its object of study. The arrows crossing
lines of intersection of both sets symbolize the existing mutual interaction
between the subject-man-and-order society.
As you can see, in this case knowledge is the product of the interplay
between subject and object.

Dialectical Materialism MODEL

To make clear the characteristics of each of the three models
cognitive process just discussed is attached a table which
The main criteria for each stream. (See Table 1).

Contemporary science has verified the model of knowledge
dialectical materialism. The psychology, epistemology, Epistemology, and
Sociology of Knowledge, have shown that knowledge is the product of a
specific practice, a subject made by social conditions, on an object
of study that exists independently of the will of the subject, then both the
order to maintain some identity and are part of the same universe society.


Idealism mechanical materialism Dialectical Materialism
· Individuals: is isolated.
· Knowledge: occurs
thanks to a mechanical reflection.
· Subject: is passive; perceives
prints issued by the
· Object: is active and its plasma
impressions on the device
perception of the subject.
· Truth: it is an essence
hidden in things eternal and
· No consensus
knowledge society
due to individual differences
and / or generic in the unit
• The knowledge is produced in
· Individuals: is isolated.
· Knowledge: results from the
individual's mental activity.
· Subject: active, establishing
reality, it creates its object
and knowledge.
· Object: is passive: does not exist outside
rationality of the subject.
· Truth: There is no criterion
truth to summarize the different
Current idealists there
particularized need.
• The socio-historical knowledge
is not uniform because
individuals are subject to
various constraints.
• The knowledge is produced in
· Individuals: it is a social being.
· Knowledge: is the product of
subject-specific practice
about the object.
· Subject: active, product and
producer of social reality.
· Objective: In the case of science
is social asset, product and
producer of the subject
· Truth: it is an infinite process
which tends to absolute truth
by accumulating
relative truths, it is
checked in and through history.
• The social knowledge is the cause
discussion because it is a type of
class knowledge, where
reviews of the subject make it
conceiving the world in various
· The knowledge is created in and
by society.

(1) SCHAFER, A True History. p. 82
(2) SCHAFER, A. Ob. Cit. p. 81-114
(3) Ibid p. 81
(4) Ibid p. 83
(5) Ibid p. 84
(6) SCHAFER, A ob. Cit. p. 91
(7) SCHAFER, A lenjuaje and knowledge p. 94

The Triangle Paradigm


José Ramón Ortiz
Institute for Educational Research


In recent years there has been reinforcing the concept of a trilogy
paradigm within the social science research in general, and
educational research in particular. This paradigmatic trilogy, made by
scientistic paradigm, hermeneutics and critical paradigm has given rise
an epistemological rupture with subsequent proliferation of different studies,
approaches, theories and practices within the field of educational research, trying
legitimize from each of these paradigms a proposal to serve emerging
foundation to guide the educational and teaching process

The main objective of this theoretical-conceptual essay is precisely to show that
categorization paradigm of social science research and in particular
science education, considers, indeed, a conceptual trilogy
paradigms or research traditions identified with the three meanings
General highlighted by Masterman (1970) from Kuhn's famous work, "The
structuring of Scientific Revolutions "(1962), except that, from every point of
this triangle composed of the paradigms: "scientific", "critical-deológico and
"Hermeneutic", collecting their own view, an angle different from this perspective
triangular. And the solution given by each of the paradigms of this problem
"Triangular paradigm" represents only a solution within its vertex
influence. To illustrate this triangle paradigm within the field of
educational research, I will refer to two works: Paradigm Dialog, edited by Guba
(1990) Critical Theory and the Teaching of W. Cars and S. Kemmis (1988).


The word paradigm, from its very introduction into the game of philosophy
science, has been characterized by polysemy and self-reference. Kuhn himself, in his
legendary work on scientific revolutions (1962), used more than 20 ways
different for the word paradigm. So, to avoid confusion and circles
vicious will start with the more general idea of paradigm, and specifically
"Research paradigm", the set of norms and basic beliefs
serve as a guide to research.

According to the diligent work The Nature of Paradigm of Margaret Masterman (1970)
these 21 meanings can be grouped into three distinct sets of
uses or designs:

1) metaphysical or metaparadigms Paradigms: When used as a set of
beliefs, as myth, as a point of view or frame of reference.

2) Sociological Paradigms: When used as a universal scientific achievement
recognized as a set of political institutions or the rule of law.

3) constructs Paradigms: when used in a more concrete form as a
implementation or set of artifacts, or as a grammar or language game.

Each of these conceptions of paradigm is, in some ways, three
research paradigms which are normally considered in the human sciences
and social:

1) scientistic paradigm (or positivist). This paradigm is guided by the remains
logical positivist paradigm, which Habermas calls "the faith of science itself
same ", this notion of paradigm corresponds to the metaphysical notion or
Masterman metaparadigmática: science (physics) and scientific methodology as
single paradigm. Philosophy of science as a science of science. Within this
paradigm we can mention the philosophy of science of Popper and Lakatos.

According to Masterman, natural sciences (physical) are characterized by
monoparadigmáticas, as there is a consensus on a single paradigm,
while the social sciences are multiparadigmatic, competing as a
plurality of paradigms.

2) ideological paradigm (or critical). Here the word paradigm has the second
meaning of Masterman, recourse to sociological paradigm, includes the
scientific group and its values in research. That is, it includes ideology.
Within this paradigm, a paradigm seeks consensus through
human intersubjectivity is an example of this conception is the communicative theory
Habermas, this theory is coordinated through the communicative rationality
different validity claims of speech and human action. The origins of
this paradigm are related to German idealism and the Frankfurt School.

3) hermeneutics (constructivist or interpretative). It corresponds
constructs meaning of paradigm as a set of constructs, models or
artifacts. Therefore studying the paradigms as different constructs
interpretations or language games, refining and hermeneutic
dialectically contrasting. An example and foundation of this paradigm originating
is the work of Hans-Georg Gadamer.

In recent years this view has been reinforced by a trilogy
paradigm within the social science research in general, and
educational research in particular. This paradigmatic trilogy, made by
scientistic paradigm, the paradigm critical hermeneutics, has resulted
an epistemological rupture with subsequent proliferation of different studies,
approaches, theories and practices, trying to legitimize from each of these
a proposal emerging paradigms provide a basis for direct action
educational and teaching process.

To illustrate this triangle paradigm within the field of research
education, I will refer to two works: Paradigm Dialog, edited by E. Guba and Theory
Teaching Critical W. Carr, S. Kemmis. The first piece is identified with
hermeneutics (or constructivist) and is the product of a conference
"Alternative Paradigms Conference" held in 1989 in San Francisco. The second,
as expressed in its title, represents the paradigm of critical theory, we
have called ideological.

Egon Guba and constructivism

Guba (1990) defines three major research paradigms, according to
Differences in the following core beliefs:

Ontological difference: on the nature of reality.

Epistemological differences: on the nature of researcher-subject relationship.

Methodological differences: on the nature of law statements.

Thus, unlike Guba following paradigms:

1) Paradigm (post) positivist

Ontology: Critical realism, the reality exists but is not fully grasped.
We can only approximate to reality.

Epistemology: Objectivism weak as regulative ideal of objectivity. We can only
closer to the truth.

Methodology: Experimental and manipulative. It pursues three main ideals
interact in the scientistic methodology as well as regulative ideals
objectivity: the primacy of method, truth and progress. The primacy of the method
means that the researcher seeks the contexts where the method can be applied, and
which may not be applied is considered that the research does not make sense.
Hypothetical-deductive method (Popper). Methodologies modeled in research
laboratory. Educational research focuses on functional relationships
teaching and learning with the organization of the school, omitting
social and historical values.

2) Critical Theory Paradigm.

Ontology: Critical Realist

Epistemology: subjective, meaning that values are fundamental to
research. Ideological dimension.

Methodology: Dialogue and transformative. The regulative ideal of these methodologies is
emancipation, as well as an evolutionary drive may be called
progress. Promotes participatory methodologies. Enter in the investigation
educational history, axiology and ethics. The production of knowledge is
production values.

3) Constructivist Paradigm

Ontology: Relativistic, reality exists only in the form of multiple buildings
mentally and socially. Reality as a social construct.

Epistemology: subjectivism, there is no differentiation between subject and object of
knowledge. Both merge into a single entity epistemology.

Methodology: Hermeneutics and Dialectics, refining and contrasting hermeneutic
dialectic. These methodologies are guided by fidelity to the object of study,
complementarity, in that it complements the research investigator. already
Unlike the scientistic methodologies and criticism, no ideal of progress
regulatory criterion. The main criterion of the constructivist research regulatory
is solidarity.

The methodology of educational research under the influence of the paradigm
constructivism is represented mainly by the current methodologies
ethnographic: a case study, fieldwork, ethnography, descriptions "dense"
("Thick descriptions"). There are also a current methodology

As noted, the constructivist school corroborate our thesis Guba
paradigmatic triangle, by classifying research in three paradigms:
Postpositivismo (scientism), Critical Theory (Ideology) and Constructivist

Critical Theory of education

For his part, Carr and Kemmis (1988) from the top ideological critical theory
classified or consider three paradigmatic positions according to how
these paradigms conceive the relationship between theory and praxis:

1) positivist paradigm

The theory guides practice. Social theories and in particular the educational theories
must comply with the standards and scientific criteria. Scientific theories must
be explanatory and predictive. Orthodoxy accepted as hypothetical-deductive method:
scientific research is to propose hypotheses in the form of general laws
and validation is the comparison of their theoretical consequences (deductive) with
experimental observations. According to the positivist paradigm, aims, concepts
and social science methods are not unlike those of the natural sciences.

For example, both the social functioning as part of behavioral psychology
this paradigm, both admit that the purpose of educational research
consists, as in the natural sciences, in gaining knowledge about regularities
which would operate as laws may be applied to educational practice in order
improve the effectiveness of it. Finally, both involve the educational theory
as an immature science, compared to physics and chemistry, and therefore
needed for development and improvement (Carr and Kemmis 1988, p. 75).

2) Critical Paradigm

In this paradigm is considered the dialectical unity of theory and practical. The theory
born as a critical critique of positivism transformed into scientism. Ie
as a critique of instrumental and technical rationality advocated by positivism
and demanding the need for substantive rationality to include trials,
values and interests of humanity. It was the Frankfurt School (Horkheimer,
Adorno, Habermas) that developed a concept of theory that was intended

fundamental human emancipation. In this conception of the theory is that
referred to the name of Critical Theory (at least in the sense that interests us here).
For critical theory is fundamental relationship between theory and practice, because she herself
arising from the review of this relationship, and that is why the conception of the relationship
theory-praxis is the criterion used by the critical paradigm for differentiating
paradigms or research traditions. Social science is critical. therefore
going beyond that which critics address the critical praxis, that is. a way
practice in which "enlightenment" of the agents have a direct consequence
transformed social action. This requires an integration of theory and practice
reflective and practical moments of a dialectical process of reflection, enlightenment and
political struggle, carried out by groups with the goal of their own emancipation.

In light of this paradigm, critical theory generates the following considerations
what should be an educational theory:

1) Educational theory must reject the positivist notions of rationality,
objectivity and truth.

2) Educational theory must admit the need for interpretative categories
of teachers.

3) The educational theory should provide the means to distinguish the interpretations
are ideologically distorted that they are not, and should provide
also some guidance on how to overcome self-understanding

4) Educational theory must take care to identify those aspects of the order
existing social frustrate the pursuit of rational ends, and be able to offer
theoretical explanations by which teachers see how to eliminate or
overcome these issues.

5) The educational theory is practical in the sense that the question of consideration
education will be determined by how it relates to
practice. (Carr and Kemmis 1988)

This proposal of a critical theory of education seeks to finding a
more consistent understanding of educational theory and practice, considering the
teacher as researcher in a critical conception of rationality

3) Interpretive Paradigm

In the interpretative tradition is replaced theoretical ideals of explanation,
prediction and control for understanding, meaning and action. Its purpose is not
search for causal or functional explanations of social and human life, but
deepen our knowledge and understanding of why the social life is perceived and
experience as it happens. The purpose of social science within the paradigm

interpretive or hermeneutical is to reveal the significance of particular forms of
social life through the systematic articulation of the structures of meaning
governing subjective ways of acting individuals. (P.105). Under this tradition
reality is a social construct: social reality is not something that exists and can be
met regardless of who wants to know. (P.116)

This categorization made by the critical paradigm is consistent, again, unless
small details of their own paradigmatic contexts, with the trilogy concept
we have proposed as the paradigmatic triangle.

The paradigmatic triangle

How do you solve each design paradigm which we call the
paradigmatic triangle, ie communication is possible between the paradigms?.
Is there a possibility of accommodation or agreement between the different paradigms or
can be reduced to a single or new paradigm?.

Scientistic paradigm

The vision scientistic or positivist paradigm does not allow the commensurate, the
communication paradigms, ie paradigms should be enough
differentiated as to be incommensurable with each other. Beliefs and rules
action to justify the truth and knowledge, are so different, that despite
to believe that we follow the same procedures, we pursue antithetical purposes.

The paradigm conceived logical positivist philosophy of science as a science of
science. Hence the name metaparadigmática. Metaparadigm defined as the
science (legal knowledge) to the same science. The philosophy of science
logical positivism, studying scientific theories: sets consistent
propositions and inference rules determined by deductive logic. The
Popper postpositivismo paradigm maintains rigor of deductive logic through
its Falsificationism, but weakens the realism through its critical rationalism;
while the paradigm of Carnap tries to build a logic-based inductive
the calculation of probabilities. Both are criticized by Kuhn in 1962, establishing its
famous thesis of paradigm incommensurability, that is, scientific theories
from different paradigms can not be compared objectively.
Kuhn tries to solve the second problem by invoking the concept of paradigm,
sociological paradigm, according to Masterman. Kuhn incorporates the social dimension
scientific group. So it tries to solve the problems arising within the paradigm
postpositivismo through a paradigm shift toward the critical paradigm. For its
side Feyerabend, Popper by training, like Kuhn, strongly criticizes
postpositivist attempts through its epistemological anarchism and recalls,
pluralism, the hermeneutic or constructivist paradigm.

Ideological paradigm

From the point of view of ideological paradigm (or critical) is the positivist paradigm
nomological and try to solve everything from a theoretical and instrumental rationality, what
which is impossible, since the court last epistemological, according to this paradigm is
placed in the context of practical rationality. According to Habermas, for example,
paradigm for knowledge would legitimize the communicative rationality, the
oriented rational understanding or comprehension, and in accordance with this
communicative rationality paradigm would solve the problem of triangle
paradigmatic ideal speech community consensually choose through
communicative rationality.


The constructivist paradigm is another construct, like the rest of the paradigms, and
Guba therefore has no problem in offering a solution
paradigm in the form of its paradigm Dialogic (Dialog), as a construct of
higher order where the different constructs (paradigm) of the research are
replaced by this new construct: "The dialog to determine Which Is Not
paradigm is, finally to win out. Rather, it is to take us to Another Level at Which all of
Paradigms These will be Replaced by yet another paradigm Whose autlines We Can See
But now dimly, if at all. "(P.27). And we do not this new paradigm closer to the
Indeed, as would be a (post) positivist but makes us grow
epistemologically, as constructivist and hermeneutic, when considering a
more informed and complex paradigm.

Thus we see that the scientistic paradigm reduces to a single triangle
point: The scientistic paradigm. The ideological or critical paradigm relies on
apex of greater consensus. Finally hermeneutics fluctuates all
the triangle in search of a new paradigm, a new figure
dissolve the previous one, a new interpretation, or narrative construct.

This triangular paradigm allows us to easily exceed the simplicity of
methodological controversy between a model and another model quantitative methodological
qualitative, and more pragmatically, we can see how it can legitimize
different search methods when the method has been capitalized
abandoned by the more discreet methods, with tiny, which assume different
contexts of legitimation. This requires a very plural and broad conception when
select the codes and procedures to justify the methodology.

When talking about paradigms, in the plural, we accept a number of possibilities
epistemological given the alternative of a single monolithic epistemology Funj
as the supreme court of human knowledge. Epistemological pluralism, with
emphasis on the legitimacy of the methods and research budgets, not
Protagoras dimension forget the human dimension.


CARR, Wilfred AND Kemmis, Stephan. Critical theory of education. Martinez
Roca. Barcelona, 1988.

KUHN, THOMAS. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, University of Chicago Press.
1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Fondo de Cultura Economica.
Mexico, 1971.

GUBA, EGON G. The Paradigm Dialog. Sage Publications. 1990. "Criteria for Assesing
truthworthiness of the naturalistic Inquirer. ERIC / ECTJ Annual, vol 29.2 p.75-91. 1981.

Habermas, Jurgen. Theory of Communicative Action (vol.1 & 2) Taurus. Madrid

Masterman, M. "The Nature of a Paradigm" in Criticism and the Growth of
Knowledge. Ed I. Lakatos & A. Musgrave. Cambridge Cambridge UP, 1970.


The purpose of existence is the student teacher. The

education can not be conceived without learning. All

professional teaching Physical Education (PE), at the end

our school or during holiday periods and entering a

school facility, we have experienced a special vacuum were missing

our students.

That student that we owe the teachers and that EF

aim to educate, teach our stuff and get a series of
objectives, is coming to our classes with a series of previous experiences
about the sport and physical activity, has known some content
teaching of PE before and have heard comments about
EF at home, with friends and the media. In
ultimately does not come into our classrooms and a blank page or a
register empty (background) on the EF and the sport. This
students come to class with different preconceptions about
of PE, some successful and adjusted to the reality of this matter
educational and other misguided and wrong about what is the
PE teaching. He comes to class with a socialization process where
the influence of social environment positively or negatively to the EF and sport
determined to have a design or other physical education.

What is the value of the body and the EF in today's society?

Depend on the different values that gives the body and
EF cultural and individual.

The body plurivalores or axiology according Gervilla (2000) are: 1 .- the
body anti-value. 2 .- the biological body. 3 .- the body dynamic. 4 .-
body aesthetic. 5 .- ethics body. 6 .- social-emotional body. 7 .-

body pleasure. 8 .- organic body. 9 .- instrumental body. 10 .-
transcendental body.

We want to know if you follow this conception of the body that

current postmodern culture presents as a true object of worship,
overvalued and that Gervilla (2000) finds the following ways:
sex-production, narcissistic, aesthetic and painless. In short, a cult
body with little effort, based mainly on pleasure and

What are the values that our students receive the body and
of the EF? Is it a concept forwarded by the elderly? Is the vision
current advocates of postmodern culture?

What previous ideas on the EF are our students before
start the school year?

Often, some students go to class with the idea EF

that one just going to have fun and that is a time schedule
school where students are entertained and that this class is for
break from school work of an intellectual nature. Comes with an idea
conceived that the EF is paramount playful, experiential, recreational
and expected of us teachers who do some classes
where it is fun great time.

Other students are close to the EF class with the preconceived idea
that in class when you are going to teach sport and where normal
will learn the technique and tactics for your sport.

In addition, some are eager to learn the ways of spending
volley ball, how to hit the soccer ball and a series of
sports skills. Focus his claim that when complete the
course are much better able to practice sport typical of the region or
sport that is practiced in their school.

Sometimes, some students come to class with a very clear idea

that they will achieve strong muscles and become more agile in
ultimately achieve maximum physical performance. He hoped that the professor
show the methods to develop their physical qualities.

These can be some of the previous ideas that have our
students on the school physical education.

Moreover the teachers have studied Psychology EF
developmental, motor development, etc., materials that allow you to meet the

students and in addition, cases will need concrete experiences
about its students and its relationship with EF. The faculty also
have their ideas about education and teaching
PE in particular.

In school programs can find other functions
of the EF, the following:

Some of the functions attributed to physical education, are

Role of knowledge, to the extent that the movement is one of
fundamental cognitive tools of the person, both
know themselves and to explore their environment and structure
immediately. Through the organization of their perceptions
sensorimotor, the student becomes aware of his body and the world
around him. Integrative function of EF.

Anatomic-functional role, improving and increasing by
movement, motor skills in very different situations and for
different purposes and activities. Role of physical performance and body

Aesthetic and expressive, through artistic expression
based on body language and movement.

Communicative function and relationship, while the person uses their
body and body movement to interact with other people, not
only in the game and sport, but in general all kinds of activities
physical. Socio - recreational.

· Function hygienic on the conservation and improvement of health and
fitness, and prevention of certain diseases and
dysfunctions. Role of physical health.

Agonistic function, while the person can demonstrate
ability to compete and overcome difficulties through bodily movement.
Performance-related function.

Cathartic function and hedonistic, to the extent that people, through
physical exercise, stress is released, restoring balance
psychic, leisure activities, and thanks to all this, enjoy
their own movement and their effectiveness body. Related function
the psycho-social - recreational.

· Function of compensation, as the movement compensates
environmental restrictions and the usual sedentary lifestyle of today's society.
Role of psychological and physical health.

For some of our students these functions are perceived
very differently.

This article aims to provide a tool for learning what
ideas, preconceptions, the implicit theories they bring or
have our students about physical education.

It is true that generally studies the teaching of PE

have focused on the figure of the PE teacher on the application
of certain teaching methods, on the effective action
of teachers on teaching theories of teachers, etc.

Just studies have focused on students and less on

their conceptions about the teaching of PE as a school subject.
See review by Sicily (1997a) focused on studies
the student. In addition, a key teaching-learning process more efficient
is to determine the initial level of the students
taking it as a starting point.

One of the last lines of research on teaching

FS is the research on students' implicit theories of
EF. The first study in Spain is Medina and Delgado (1998)
as a first approximation from an exploratory analysis conducted
Chillon (1998).

For the study of implicit theories of PE first thing

was made a historical review of ideas on the EF to determine
the repertoire of cultural models or concepts are
appearing, along the time, diachronically, on
School Physical Education.

The purpose of collecting these cultural patterns or "structure

External "on a certain domain, in our case the EF, is provide a
guides or "advance organizers" through which to explore
then the "internal structure", ie, the diversity of
conceptions that people have about that domain. (Marrero, 1993).

At first, theoretical provisionally and found 16

theories: RU gymnastics, therapeutic, sports, educational, utilitarian
philosophical, academic, aesthetic, educational, performance, social,
evaluation, scientific, cultural, recreational and health.

2. Implicit Theories of Physical Education
Theories on the EF by the students represent a synthesis

what is known and thought in this area is education and
a range of alternative conceptions that the students are
able to recognize and discriminate the EF school.

Implicit theories are dynamic synthesis of experience
Biographical activated by demands of the knowledge system. these are
direct, vicarious or symbolic. (Marrero, 1993)

Implicit theories of physical education are generated through
experience related to the conceptual, practical, health and
axiological implications, emotional and social.

To identify the implicit theories of EF, identify

preconceptions, before school starts is very important for
able to act more effectively, to make himself conscious student
of mental and cultural structure that has about the subject and
to contrast these ideas with regard to its further development.

In this sense it is also interesting to know the impact that

teaching of PE not only theoretical knowledge of the subject
(Facts, principles and concepts) but also on what is achieved with
physical development and what can be done in the realm of
body and motor (procedures) and the attitudes and values acquired
on the EF and the corporeal (norms, values and attitudes).

A compendium of all these achievements we need to know what

design have on the EF, what are their implicit theories end
the teaching process? What ideas or concepts are
amended with the teaching of PE? o EF is conceived as the
beginning of the course?

Should we maintain from the conceptions of Physical Education
current culture of effort and success is not quick or we should direct the

same to other guidelines? We think so and the task of
EF education and integrate knowledge and effort pleasure, amusement and
learning, the fleeting and the durable, hedonism and commitment.

The study of theories and / or conceptions of the ESO EF
we know and inquire about:

What are the implicit theories about the EF prior to the start of a
school stage?

How these implicit theories evolve over that period
• What are the gender differences?

What differences are seen among students who do physical exercise
of school and those who do not perform?
· Are there differences depending on the nature of the center?
• What are implicit theories at the end of the school years?
· Is relationship between implicit theories and academic performance?

What are the differences according to geographical context

3. Types of implicit theories of physical education
Of the sixteen theories mentioned above, found in a first
study (Medina and Delgado, 1998), have been established components

or subdomains within them to study and analyze
each in its essential characteristics.
· Aim.
· Media / Contents priority.
• Assessment and control.
· Model behind.
Following this analysis have been summarized in five main theories or
Conceptions of School Physical Education. (Delgado, 2002): Theory

health / therapeutic / preventive physical performance theory / gymnastics /

utility / sport; Theory recreational / leisure / procedural; Aesthetic Theory /

Communicative / expressive and educational theory / integral / philosophical /

academic / cultural / social.

After review and synthesis of cultural or scientific theories
PE, there were cultural or scientific theories from statements
verbal through discussion groups with school-age subjects
the intention of obtaining a series of utterances expressing
the variety of ideas contained in each cultural or scientific theory about

of PE, not only as to their content but also

the way they are expressed.

The methodological procedure followed was to discuss each theory in the

Within a group of students of Secondary Education

(ESO), from a series of push or generating sentences,

following the rules and roles of the participants provided

Marrero (1987).

As an example, are a few phrases used in generating
each theory.

Health · Theory: "The most important is the Physical Education
benefits to health. " "I'm learning to EF
correct faulty posture. "

Performance Theory: "Every day I do more gymnastics development
muscle. "
· Theory Recreational: "When EF classes I have happened to me
super. " "Games are essential classes

Expressive Theory: "The EF allows us to express ourselves through
· Theory Education: "The EF has a formative value of the
person. " "With PE has developed a way
whole. "

Once collected a set of statements representing each

theory in its various dimensions or subdomains, we proceeded to
selection of sentences or phrases that best represent each theory
by a group of experts: professors of Didactics of Physical Education
University of Granada.

After this study (Thin, 2002) theories were implemented in
only four: Theory EF Health, EF Performance Theory; Theory EF
Recreation and Expressive Theory EF.

I. THEORY HEALTH: Physical Education considers essential performed
as a means of promoting health. It covers the value of EF
Type all rehabilitation and recovery of physical type and support
difficulties in school learning. Physical Education focuses too
as a means of preventing disease.

· Aim: To improve and maintain health.
· Media / Content priorities: moderate physical activity,
adapted and healthy. Health and physical qualities, Sport
healthy physical activities.

Evaluation or control: Parameters medical, physical related
and acquisition of health attitudes and healthy habits.

Underlying model: Medical and integration in the teaching of
EF cross health content.
II. PERFORMANCE THEORY: He claims that the EF fundamentally
dedicated to making strong individuals. Considers that the Physical Education
Education is essentially gymnastics. Education grants to
Physics a utility value to perform activities of daily living. It
mainly focused on the sport as the substance of the
Physical Education.

Purpose: To achieve high levels of performance, based on
performance of physical qualities, motor and sport.

Media / Content priorities: Physical and sports activities
with emphasis on results. Physical Fitness and Sports.
• Assessment and control: Physical parameters and sports.
Underlying · Model: Teaching and Performance Products.

III. RECREATION THEORY: Interprets Physical Education takes place
in the classroom as a means of entertainment. In RU
important is the process and have fun.

Purpose: To carry out recreational activities primarily
based on experience: Have fun.

Media / Content priorities: Leisure and Physical Activities
recreation. Games and Sports.
• Evaluation and control: attitudes acquisition parameters
positive physical activity and sporting habits. Degree
fun of students.

Model underlying: Teaching of EF based on the Process and
the experience.
IV. EXPRESSIVE THEORY: Understands the physical education as a means
to improve their body image that allows you to reshape your body. The
essential domain of EF is the expression and body language.

Purpose: To develop the expressive and communicative
individual and relational.

Media / Content priorities: rhythmic and expressive activities.
Corporal Expression.
• Evaluation or control: Parameters rhythmic and expressive.
Underlying · Model: Teaching Expressive and relational
4. Previous studies. Construction of the questionnaire
With the construction of this questionnaire seeks regulatory

determine the structure of knowledge of schoolchildren in the domain of
EF school and verify that historical theories are such and are
represented among the students in the class of EF.


Jorge G. Hoary

* Rafael Aguilar Valdez

Technical Data

Problems of Educational Theory is a book written by Dr. Jorge Guillermo
Cano Tisno and edited in Culiacan, Sinaloa, by SEPyC and COEPES, government
the State of Sinaloa, in 1997, consists of 200 pages and was published for purposes

The book's author

Jorge Guillermo Cano Tisno is a recognized outstanding academic circles
academics and intellectuals. Born in Culiacan, Jorge Guillermo made
secondary and vocational studies at the State Normal School, the school in
Central High School Night of the UAS, he studied law at the
School of Law, UAS; degree in education from the UPN, obtained a
Master of Science in Education (ICSE-UAS) and a doctorate in Social Sciences with
specialization in Educational Development at the Universidad Metropolitana. He is currently
member of the National Research System, has been director of the UAS IIES, the
ICSE-UAS and teaching of the Masters and Doctorate in Education from that institution. The
Dr. Cano is a journalist and writer Tisno notorious for many years and
the field of information and the public, is widely known. Jorge
Guillermo Cano is a distinguished scholar who has lifted up our University
Autónoma de Sinaloa.

The work

The book Problems of Educational Theory Jorge Guillermo Cano, is a little work
Sinaloa common. It is indeed rare in our teachers reflect on the
educational work, much less about the problems in the theory in general and
the education in particular. In that sense, the text is a contribution and
invitation to deepen the educational theory and the work of two great educators
that many theorists have influenced current: komenski Jan Amos (Comenius,
Comenius) and Jean Jacques Rousseau.

* Professor and researcher at the UAS. He is currently responsible for the General Coordination of Research and
Graduate of this institution.

The text is divided into two parts. A first one addresses the problems
theory in general and education in particular. A second section in which
addresses the educational thought of Comenius and Rousseau, rescuing what would
are present. The author divides the work into four chapters. The first addresses the
problems of the theory regarding the different historical positions on this
topic, the historicity of the same, the validity of different theoretical positions, the
objectivity in them. Chapter two focuses on the educational theories as
historic buildings. Chapter three is dedicated to discuss the educational proposal
Comenius and the fourth to Education and Society in Rousseau, the two authors
situated in its time and place, analyzing the specific circumstances of the action and
cultural and political influences that were submitted.

The sources used Tisno Cano in the development of his work are texts
fundamental that enrich the content thereof. Just to mention some
suffice it to Adam Schaff, a Abbagnano, Edward Carr, James Bowen, Jean Chateau,
Charles A. Beard, Horowitz, Langford, Fermoso, Giroux, Gramsci and of course the
Classic: Comenius, Rousseau, Marx, Descartes, Hegel, Kant, Durkheim. They all
interrogate them critically and leverages them.

Text Criticism

The author of the text in question dealt with from your very special perspective problems
theory in general and education in particular. Line of thought Cano
Tisna is part of the "theoretical constructions such as correspondence and
product of a particular social practice. That is, from a Marxist perspective
and renewed criticism that "the material object becomes the object of knowledge
fall within the sphere of human activity. From this position the author
confronts traditional positions in both theoretical and idealistic variants

According to the theoretical positions more traditional idealists, are the ideas,
In short the theory, who have the greatest value in the construction of knowledge. The
idea, according to this view, precedes the object, and therefore the person is
objective reality as a projection of his mind.

As for the advocates of mechanistic positions "only matter
any representation exists and the world depends on the material reality. "

In contrast to both traditional positions, a third-that
author shares, which states that in the process of change that occurs in
mental preparation, "a dialectic interaction occurs where theory is understood
as a representation of reality, as their knowledge about, and the theory operates
as the organizing element of reality whose order is not disclosed to the simple observation
and requires the intervention of an explanation and approximate introduce the notion
the object. "

Based on the position of Adam Schaff puts you in the center of attention
interaction between subject and object interactions that feeds and enriches
rise to new knowledge products in a constant approximation to reality
specifically, the author criticizes the idealist position that the subject is the sole responsibility of the
development of knowledge, like the mechanical materialist that
knowledge is a reflection of the material world in the mind of the individual.

Consistent with this line of thought, the theory must be dynamic, constantly
review, adjustment of the assumptions that make it up and confronted with
Actually, modifying and, with this mediation, help to transform reality and
knowledge of this reality, all closely related to the history of man, that
is part of the story.

Theory the author meant by "a general knowledge system that works
and systematic explanation of certain aspects of reality that emerges as
generalization of cognitive activity and the results of doing practical,
helps transform the nature and social life. The criterion of truth, a theory
according to this position, is practice. The truth of a theory is valid
and validity depends on the ability of theory to fulfill the functions that
is called. The historical character of every theory is that essentially makes
dynamic and changing.

Any theory is historic also because:

description of the process, essential point of the theory
explanatory, it must locate the ideal mobile human actions
(Motives, intentions, goals) ... But mobile phones become intelligible only
in the analysis of social relations ...

The historicity of the theory is, moreover, a fundamental condition for
establish the scientific nature thereof, and to the extent that we understand
as a process of interaction of multiple factors, and not as a mere location
tempering-space means more rationally.

According to the above, educational theory as such does not exist,
there are educational theories conceived by authors with different conceptions
ideological times and places. To understand educational theory or whether
want a vision of what education should situarsele in the socio-historical context where
emerge and analyze it, taking into account the broad and complex network of relationships and
causalities interacting with each other.

Following this order of ideas, the author, according to its analytical axis, examines two
Although forms of the educational differences that have powerfully influenced theorists
education in different places and times: the theoretical / educational Juan
Amos Comenius and Jean Jacques Rousseau.

Komenski Jan Amos (Comenius) (1592-1670), was a great humanist and

considered by many the father of modern pedagogy. His work should be analyzed
in the context in which it arose: the Renaissance and religious reform. In his thinking
influence much of the early Lutherans, but not the political solutions
pessimism about the human kind. It is also present in his position,
Erasmus' conception of religion and society.

Comenius on the conviction that a man only needs education
adequate to fully develop their nature, according to its design,
education is:

the art of interior germinate seeds are developed not by
incubation but when stimulated with appropriate experience,
sufficiently varied and rich and heartfelt as ever new, even
by those who teach ...

Comenius sees education as a system where the child and the subject of the act
education in general, is the center of attention. The ideal is Pansófico of Jan Amos
the desire "to teach everything to everyone, but not the exact depth knowledge and
all the sciences and the arts, but "the foundation, the reason and purpose of all
main things, natural and artificial, for he who comes into the world comes not only
being a spectator, but actor "

His teaching method consists basically of three elements: understanding,
and retention practices. According to him can be accessed three fundamental qualities:
erudition and virtue and religion, to which correspond three powers is necessary to purchase:
intellect, will and memory. This method should follow the following times:

1) 1) Any thing to be known must be taught;
2) 2) Anything that is taught should be taught in their practical application, its
defined use;

3) 3) should be taught in a straight and clear;
4) 4) To teach the true nature of things, based on their causes;
5), 5) Explain general principles;
6) 6) Address the order, position and relation of things;
7) 7) To teach things in due course;
8) 8) Do not leave any matter to its perfect understanding;
9) 9) Give due importance to the differences between things.

Comenius has exerted a great influence to this day teaching. He
considered a prophet and a revolutionary, the creator of the democratic school and
innovative pedagogy.

Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) was a philosopher and teacher of Enlightenment
raises a philosophical movement that make the reason the absolute basis of life
This is why human and bring each individual to act consciously within the
social order. The thought of John James, specifically a thought

education is philosophical and social. The deepest concerns of Rousseau in
the educational aspect, "have more to do with a social philosophy of education and not
a particular teaching. "pedagogical thinking is Genevan philosopher
not only in "Emile", but in many of his works. It is in Emile, however, where
more clearly perceived its pedagogic discourse, but always subordinate to the
Rousseau's social philosophy.

For Rousseau, man is born free, but the extent to which they belong
social life, lose freedom. The man needs to sacrifice its natural condition (of
freedom) to live in the society. This is a useful decision that can only be
legitimated by the agreement, the agreement between individuals. Education in this
sense, is the instrument by which man becomes a being capable of
live in society (which is the natural environment of man as social).

John Jacob believes that education of man "is the effect of nature
of men or things. "By nature men develop their bodies and
faculties teach men the use of this development and the experience itself against
objects is the education of things these three men teachers receive
contradictory lessons, but directed toward the same end. For the Genevan education
must cover a period of human life extends from birth to
marriage and parenthood. In this course the man goes through four major
periods: from birth to 5 years of age, stage at which favors the development
physical body of five to ten years, when the experiences occur with the
external world and nature, that develop the senses, from ten to fifteen, the
intellectual preparation, and fifteen to twenty when introducing and developing the
moral and religious education.

During the first two periods, education must be in the nature of
child, recognition of their instincts and natural inclinations, and only then can
developed as a physical being (naturally) and any direction to the contrary is a
obstacle and a deviation. At this stage, Rousseau argued that education must not
be addressed. Fundamental education is the natural environment, "observe the
nature, and follow the path that shows us "he says. What John James tries to avoid
all costs, is the disorder implicit in human relations "in the child generates
fad, that is, the tendency to use others, and then the blindness,
the hypocrisy and laziness. "

The educational approach of Rousseau ostensibly presents
important shortcomings. To begin with, to observe their approach is obvious
it necessitates a very close relationship and continuing throughout the time
education lasted, between teacher and student, something extremely difficult, besides the
student would have to be healthy and have-your family-appropriate media, hard
achieve. Proper education with the formation of good ideas, says
Rousseau, is a fundamental task of the educational process. "Such
ideas should come from the relationships with things and with men. But things well
as relationships, be taken as facts and in their view should not intervene
external assessments as they distract from the fundamental ", hence

John Jacob states that "the historians who judge are the worst for education
the young. "

For Rousseau should not be teaching the learner a lot of things but the just,
necessary and useful. Therefore, the task of the educator, particularly during childhood,
is always prevented from entering your brain (the child) ideas that
are fair and transparent. The ideal training for John Jacob is possible by attachment to
nature, attention to levels of understanding and teaching natural and pragmatic.
"The abuse of books kills science.'s A lot of reading only serves to keep
presumed ignorant. "Education, therefore, has no end point of arrival, is a
process that lasts a lifetime.

Rousseau rejects and dismisses the equality of the sexes, which is very common
in the society of his time, therefore, training of women should be different from the
male. "Every girl should be the religion of his mother and all of her married
husband. "However, Rousseau introduced in the discussion to the most
dispossessed, as an operative in his speech, reaching extremes collide,
even with their own encyclopedic who did not share their ideas.


We have already noted the main achievements and contributions provided by the work of Jorge
Guillermo Cano Tisno, Problems of Educational Theory. It should be noted that after
writing this book, Cano has an unresolved: the analysis of different
educational theories that have historically existed in our country and with it, a
semblance of the leading theorists of education in Mexico, José María Luis Mora,
Valentine Gomez Farias, Gabino Barreda, Justo Sierra, José Vasconcelos and Narcissus

Hand in hand with the educational theories are the various educational policies
have existed in Mexico and almost all have one thing in
common policies are outdated and transient.

Urge begin to analyze the problems involved in globalization in the field
Mexican education. Globalization and competitiveness are the main
challenges facing education in Mexico in 2000. The theory and politics
education must address this reality if we are to survive as a nation.
Facing the XXI century it is time to establish a more realistic and ambitious
education; forward, even to the changes they envision, and are already
producing, on pain of losing the train of history for being late to the station
requirements of the global production and consumption.

Philosophy of Education

Octavi human reality

2.1 Knowledge globalizing
Educational reality is constituted by facts and studies are
around that reality. The educational science studies are based on the
budgets that exceed the reality studied. Feyerabend believes that
science is largely the result of non-scientists, it says so in the
Science in a free society. The originality of science lies perhaps at the fact
their budgets more easily remain hidden ideological. The facts
educational support different interpretations or, if preferred, different readings
science and, not to mention, not scientific.

Education is an activity and, indeed, complex. It involves
actions, thoughts, feelings, people, objects, institutions and even biochemistry.
Talking about education is particularly problematic, so many
entangled are the variables involved in the educational process. I do not consider
there who can be assured of complete enumeration of all factors
involved in anthropogenesis fascinating.

Of course, the first encounter difficulty that matches the
problem of relating thought and action, not losing sight of that also
give different levels of mental discourse. Education, as emphasized by Durkheim, is to
Suddenly the action exercised by adult generations on generations
still weakly socialized, how serious and difficult lies in having to discuss this
complex activity rather than simply point fingers.

Educante practice has, for now, a dimension that is not irrational
be eliminated, at most we are enabled to reduce it. If this practice distinguish
between uses technical, technological and praxeological of reason, it is possible to argue that
in the second of these uses the degree of rationality appears strongest.

common sense or everyday use of reason

view of the educational work.
Uses of
practical reason

Technological conscious use of science and technology

for educational work.

Using science and technology to solve
practical issues of education, recognizing
failure of one and other.

Both the parents and teachers make use of reason in
three dimensions mentioned above. It is impracticable for the sole use technology
reason to solve all questions presented in the
daily educator.

Educational reality is constituted by facts, and are the studies
around that reality. Studies are based on science teaching
budgets that exceed the reality studied.

Again the reason for becoming involved with positive
seeking educational intelligible and orderly. There have been, in this attempt, two
main lines: the analytical and synthetic. In the first, are the
technological mode-search-regional operational model and mode
scientific and theoretical inquiry into regional models. In line with guidance
there are synthetic and inclusive scrutiny of both theoretical and operational models
general, seeking to take over the educational phenomenon is understood as a

The singular general

Technological knowledge and
regional scientists.
Fundamental knowledge
Integrators 2.Teoría of
General education
3.Filosofía of
with educational
varying degrees
It is a fact that human reason strives
maximally general views of his surroundings and circumstances. In the Metaphysics
Aristotle generally understood as that which corresponds to various things
singular "education-in-general" embraces all individualized educations.
The distinction between the general and individual things characterizes human knowledge.
Both technological and scientific knowledge of education or knowledge-
regionalized, as knowledge of the educational phenomenon totes-Pedagogy
fundamentally, education theory and philosophy of education comprise the multi-
from the generic.

The complexity of educational phenomena makes it so difficult
study that has been necessary to resort to modeling. In physics or

chemistry, the models are simpler, does not occur evenly in psychology at
sociology, economics or politics, where the models are complicated at the same time
inaccurate and incomplete. The models who want to understand it based educator
epistemology and globalizing-case integration of the Theory of education
of critical pedagogy and philosophy of education, are forced to
biopsychic relate to socio-cultural aspects in order to obtain a
educante comprehensive knowledge of the act. The educational system is structured by
psychobiological subsystems, sociohistorical and axiofilosófico. Both subsystems
realities as the system is moving constantly a need to change
models. Models in the Philosophy of Education seek to embrace global
the three subsystems anthropology.

Models or imitable (eg teacher, parent)

Technological reason: educational theory
(Education and learning)

scientific-practical reason: Basic Education
(Education as normative)

Models reason Anthropology



Filo. educational


(Education and



critical ratio

language education

From Peirce to Popper through Carnap, Reichenbach, Quine,
Jacobson, Chomsky and even Wittgenstein, has pulled out of the contemporary
truth claims to epistemological reflections, although the truth-as
in the case of Popper, not go beyond being a mere regulative idea, not
science can be expected from any unshakable certainty.

Integrative knowledge about the educational phenomenon attempt
formation of systems from different perspectives, or make understandable
explained and, as appropriate, manipulated the educational event in

The tekhne was intended, especially from positivism
manage things and men, has not gone very graceful in its mission
as has been seen in this drawing and the twentieth century. Begins to show the tekhne
unskilled and inexperienced in their desire to solve everything. Not enough Theory
Education and Basic Education to provide a comprehensive knowledge of what
educante; be required in addition, the Philosophy of Education.

Describe and explain what is different educational standards. Aim of this
guise, a fundamental division that confuses the "is" in "should be", the indicative
with the imperative. You can already sketch the following scheme to sequence mode
embarked on the road.

His nature (Philosophy of Education)

Its rules effective (critical pedagogy)

His description (Theory of Education)

Making education problematized in two directions: that of how to make and
in that of what to do. By educating the how-intervene "in the conduct of a
individual in order to get something-what-Pedagogy and Philosophy. Besides being the
explanatory account on which it is made. Theory of Education.


1. The synthesizer (average): Basic Education

2. That synthesizer (posthumous): Theory of Education

3. The synthesizer what (late): Philosophy of Education

"The formulation of educational objectives responding to an act of choice
aware of the faculty, who is based on previous experience and acts
aid of various types of information. The selection and ordering late
objectives, on the other hand, depends on learning theory and philosophy of
accepted by the teachers education. "

To conclude this presentation of the three disciplines-synthesizing the
education, we began to characterize them separately.

A) Theory of Education: explanatory theory and global processes
education to the extent that they are learning
information, attitudes and skills. Cybernetic models
was highly illuminating in this particular.

B) Basic Education: pragmatic theory of globalizing
educational processes, a theory that effectively makes them manageable.
Normative theory of the behavior of students. This Moore
called Theory of Education. From budgets
anthropological, epistemological and axiological-both individual
Society-recommended methodology.

C) Philosophy of Education: namely globalization, comprehensive and critical
educational processes to facilitate budget
anthropological, epistemological and axiological, besides producing
critical analysis.

2.2 fundamental Pedagogy and Theory of Education
Sarramona not be convenient to separate and Education Theory
Basic Education, proposing instead the Philosophy of Education as
different knowledge. Puts it as follows:

"Much clearer to me seems to consider as science pedagogy
general education, including in it the science-speculative and
practical-normative, and rational speculative leaving for the Philosophy of
Education. "

Personally I am inclined to consider it more practical, even in view of
university teaching-by despartimiento Theory and Education
Basic Education. It is now characterize the second in
epistemological autonomy.

We consider, first, as regards fundamental, that specifies
this speech about what could be differential regional and pedagogies.
Background often refers to the casual explanation of something, the reason for something, in
Other times, the foundation aims to support a logical statements. In our
disquisition matter the second meaning, the Basic Education holds the
discourses that teachers take in the colorful term specific fields. Not

it is therefore of Satz des Grunden, or top of the foundation, as
could be the "principle of sufficient reason", but something derived from it but
above, not only the educational praxis, but also because the educational requirements

Critical pedagogy produce fundamental statements in the
sense of the fundamentally different pedagogies. The rules produced by
The latter are based on the extent of which can be inferred
fundamental statements. As a result of induction, accumulated in science and
technology education, provides suggestions to the Basic Education
to announce this educational standards.
The jump of being "scientific and technological-pedagogical-normative duty-not
is particularly outrageous because we are not an imperative to
categorically that requires consciousness, but this is only an exercise of
prudence and wisdom-phronesis-by fundamentalist teachers.
There is no naturalistic fallacy because the approach is unethical-obligee in
consciousness, but wisdom, typical of sophos, the wise or understood at that
activity, but not as simple tekhnítes or skillful, but as a "know-act"
educationally as good and evil of man.

The Basic Education is not specified by conducting studies
interdisciplinary-these are for her a necessary but not
enough, "what distinguishes it as a synthesizer and globalizing knowledge is
normative nature of their statements. Just collect scientific data and
technologists, linking does not give rise to issue guidelines for action
educante also must proceed cautiously in view of the good of mankind. The
integrative synthesis Fundamental Pedagogy will be prescriptive or

All teaching, non-core is still the driving theory is
agogía ie, rules.

Moore distinguishes between explanatory theories and practical theories: the former,
which is also called scientific, must square with the facts known, described and
explain, the latter, however, are aimed at the limitation of actions.
The Theory of Education, in my nomenclature and not in the Moore-member of the
first type of theories as the Basic Education, also in my léxicoforma
part of the practical theories. The Philosophy of Education, however, no
one theory is within this vocabulary.

Theory is, in general, a description and explanation of what happens,
has happened or is likely to happen in the realm of the empirical. However, the
uses the term semantic theory are not so simple. It is worthwhile to present a
table set out the main meanings of such significance. Only
This way you can gauge the sense that here are the set theory

The word theory comes easily significance within the scheme
when it comes to scientific theory, "Education and Basic Education -
Practical theory of education "but not the same when provided word
aim to Philosophy of Education. In the latter case, says the theory is
conceptual framework, not scientific, constant reference for the teaching profession,
also indicates the manner in which he referred to criticism of the Frankfurt School
particularly Horkheimer.

For this, the theory fails to hold the traditional meaning, according to which
is a set of sentences linked together so that certain statements,
considered basic, lead by logical derivation to other statements which should be
proven by the facts that are accepted. In this concept of theory as
Horkheimer called "traditional theory" against which proposes "critical theory."
The latter takes into account the status of native speakers and
conditioning that suffer from it. "Critical theory" reform the present
function of a different future.

For the Theory of Education, however, that interest is qualified
of Frankfurt by the "traditional theory." Can not overlooked, either,
etymology of the term because its original meaning survives in some way.
"Theoria", in Greek, describes the act of looking, to inspect something. In this regard,
Greek theater audiences were some theoretical. In looking at its meaning
mentally, theoria said the act of looking or seeing some reality
mental. Theoretikos Aristotle called episteme, theoretical science, the discourse that opposes
action both as to production. The contemporary concept of theory has not been
completely detached from the semantic uses of his birth.

Human knowledge is theoretical when it goes beyond the mere
realization of the given, here and now, beyond the aisthesis and empeiría. A
systematic theory is speculation that seeks to describe and explain facta
under the control of the experience. A scientific theory aims to determine,
its main function being to systematize and increase knowledge. This, and nothing else,
is the task of the Theory of Education: learning to be providing intelligence so
which also provide information that make it more effective. Theories of
Education Theory assumptions and conventions will be a high degree of

Educational Theory explain the educational granary. This
explanation will be an un-wrap it involved a hidden or manifest, as they say
German Erklären consist, to clarify or put light on brute facts. No
These include education, one of the tasks of the Philosophy of Education, "
but to explain describing. Understanding is concerned with the meaning of
educante process, the simple explanation, however, deals with the causes of this
process, and this is the task of science and technology education. Theory of
Education explained, not so much with the causes, the models through
sintetizadoramente educators describe the events, so as to speak to
respond to "How education happens as it happens?".

Attempts to theorize about education from the theory of
information, General Systems Theory and Cybernetics, seem to me
very relevant and companies that fall squarely within the concept of Theory
Education just outlined.

Incidentally: Science and Technology

Explaining education

descriptively: Theory of Education


prescribing education: Basic Education
education include: Philosophy of Education

2.3 Philosophy of Education
The much hyped human rationality may not be simply the result of
human evolutionary adaptation. This has used the mind to survive. The
reason is to get out well to new circumstances not foreseen in the repertoire
usual. The man is rational in emergency situations, usually
is not reasonable. The production philosophy is also part of this need for
resolve difficulties. The philosophy can not resolve any pregnancy may seriously in the world
empirical, but at least it lays bare the human being is
constantly faced with obstacles and afflictions that leave you alone. "Lo -
that - there are "ever makes it problematic to man and it just then
producing unreal.

In our Western world, the philosophy began as mythology,
cosmogony and speculation over the bulk of the world. Hesiod and the Presocratics
premiered a kind of speech that has been called "philosophies" or gait
one without fainting, love of learning. The philosopher is one who denies the ignorant
nescience to run useless and insatiably to knowledge that fills.

Beyond this point poetic about the definition of philosophy, born in
Socratic circle, is amazingly intricate set philosophical learning. Can not
forget that the very concept of philosophy is already a primary object
the philosophical task. Define philosophy and philosophy is to produce. Definitions
given by various philosophers philosophizing about what it is all
perspectives from which it has been the philosophy. Every historical moment stresses
one or more features of what is meant by philosophical discourse.

Aristotle remarked that philosophy because the men were born
Maverick and protesters, not settling for things pulp. In
metaphysics concludes that:

"The shock has led men to philosophize ... who is admired and
question has a sense of ignorance ... So, to remedy their
ignorance, the men began to philosophize. "

Sciences also were born of stay, one in front of stunned
appeared before, gray everyday banality. However, after the sciences
have emancipated from philosophy over the centuries running from the seventeenth to the
twentieth century we have finally come to realize that the sense that science itself is given
same domain-eg the nature of technical progress, growth of information
scientific, well-being of men, effectively leaving us wondering ... "he continues and
that we have made problematic the same way that science is
bestowal. The science and technology meet needs, but we
asking for the total expected. The nineteenth century far behind and already we
questioned the value that science is autoconceden. The use of
anemia interdisciplinary anthropological evidence of the sciences.

A philosophy questions we should shape from that situation
science in that it is not legitimate, socially, a sense of activity
science from the same activity. When the legitimacy of new theories
science is not very obvious, it's time for philosophy.
When scientific constructs move on coercion, philosophical reflection opens
possibility of providing them away from meaningful communication

The Philosophy of Education is one of the care of
fill the gaps in science and technology in the education,
existential weaknesses if you will, but hardship and shortages the end of the day.

The activity of philosophy, if we ignore, for now, the analysis
philosophical, is much better from intelligent consciousness insofar as it is

The epistemological value of the intentionality of consciousness as a method
specifier philosophy lies in maintaining that the Lebenswelt, or lifeworld
preconscious, is the foundation of all experience. The starting point of all
analysis is the gradual elucidation of the structures of meaning that are already
entered into the world of everyday life. So, we'll have a sense of
educational reality it is mainly through the experience of that
Actually, having to return to this original experience and self-conscious.

Philosophical truth, born in this way, it will be a-Lethia. Meant Lanthano
hide and forget. A-Lethia will therefore be de-veiling. Philosophical truth is
always shameless as it goes without veils and walk naked. The truth, in the field

education is to discover the meanings of education and are given in
educational experience.

We are now able to provide some definition of
Philosophy of Education, not analytical, from the previous consideration of the

Educational Philosophy of rational knowledge and critical conditions
possibility of educational experiential reality as a whole

This definition should be understood as him becoming what
Hegel argues in the Principles of philosophy of law, which in its French version

"Chacun est le fils de son temps. De meme aussi la philosophie, elle
summarizes son temps dans la pensée.

The definition made earlier reflects the thinking of each period within
of the expression conditions of possibility.

Next-and not against, the previous definition of Philosophy
Education can build another, inspired by the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
Ludwig Wittgenstein. Both definitions proposed useful activities to Philosophy
Education. Here Wittgenstein's defining text:

"The object of philosophy is the logical clarification of ideas. The
Philosophy is not a doctrine but an activity. A philosophical work consists
essentially clarifications. The results of philosophy are not axioms
philosophical, but the clarification of principles. The philosophy is to clarify and define
clearly the ideas that would otherwise be somewhat gray and fuzzy. "

Since conceptions of philosophy living opposite fed as
we have seen, and since both seem to me useful, not saying no
objection to the educational philosophy that addresses what do the two activities
although, of course, without confusing them. The second definition of the Philosophy of
Education can be formulated as follows:

Philosophy of Education know that clarifies critical concepts,
statements and arguments used by educators and

Onmicomprensiva definition result from the two definitions together

Educational Philosophy is not science or technology educations or
Nor is pedagogy or educational theory. What is it? A
question of what does and says in the educational and pedagogical
general. Since there is no man without the educational process, such as Kant observed, the
philosophy of education poses a radical question; will therefore
anthropology of education. Since we do not have education without
produce words, sentences and arguments, not marvel that this discipline take
two major orientations.

Logical analysis of language.
On what is said



About what you want


Philosophy, understood as metaphysical as integrated as
critical question, ask questions and points to nothing normal responses
disconcerting, with respect to educational data. No matter to philosophy or
how to educate, or how, or what means, or what subject psychobiological; what
is concerned, for example, who is the learner metaempíricamente considered, what
is education and what is education. Questions irrelevant and useless to
Eye of the technologist and scientist; questions, however, unavoidable unless the
educator is very scientific endeavor but in turn very foolish and absurd.

Made a first approach to the philosophical knowledge that deals
the educational process, we have drawn an epistemological property
precisely placed one in the precarious, although recognizing both the
importance and the urgency of such an extravagant know. It is too
hard work in the task of educating ignorant who is, beyond
"Empeiría", the student, what is, in his "eidos", educate, and what it teaches, or what
is "anthropos" when he wants to move on "telos" in purpose and term.

Along with this aspect of the Philosophy of Education, which deals with what
you want in education, should be put the other one goes busy as
says about education. Moore explains concisely and clearly the second trace:

"The current philosophers of education, at least in the Anglophone world,
not usually engaged in formulating their own theories of education, but
analyze and clarify the concepts used in educational discourse, concepts like
as education, learning, development, experience, game and other similar-and
considered the arguments and justifications proposed theories makers

2.4 Tasks of Philosophy of Education
According to the division of philosophy given above offer the
scheme the following page:

Once established and the tasks of the Philosophy of Education
presented to each of them.

Analysis of teaching languages

Contemporary thinking can be defined as a reflection
focused on the language. Ferdinand de Saussure opens an investigation of Levi-
Strauss and Lacan, the Vienna Circle enables the analysis of Russell and
Wittgenstein, Heidegger has stimulated efforts like those of Derrida. All of these
jobs are different but coincide in analyzing language. Just as we
a philosophy of law and a Philosophy of Art, have the same fate
a philosophy of language. The medieval and developed a Philosophical Grammar
which dealt with language problems to unravel.

To determine whether an educational problem has or not, respect it should
examine the construction of propositions that is made and through
which is conveyed. Sometimes a statement is wrong formula gives rise to the birth of
fantasy issue whose discussion goes beyond slamming the void.

As an educational process is an act of communication and that the
Language is the most important mediation communication, not surprising that the
Philosophy of Education dedicated to the study of languages both educators
as pedagogues. Shannon, an engineer, in 1981, defined the way information
designed only too narrow line in the quantity and
depriving them of semantic content. Transmitting information and signals but not
meanings. Shannon's theory was successful in communication engineering and
provided significant benefits in phonology and grammar-think Jakobson, "but
has not given semantic field of the problems of meaning. Can
human communication has completely objectively?, is it not
indispensable subjective interpretation, at least when addressing the issues

Language Analysis
Education ("To
why man is
education ")
Education ("That
man is
education ")
Education (value
science and
(Constants and
address this
Analysis of languages
Education ("To
why man is
education ")
Education ("That
man is
education ")
Education (value
science and
(Constants and
address this
The word of a teacher, a mother or teacher, or a teacher, an educational or
an educational psychologist, has provided a complex behavior that can not
represented by an analytical definition. Each word has real meaning
arises from the modification of the basic meaning because of social and
individual form a factual context. Without using words, no
their meaning, as Wittgenstein observed. Put another way, without
a specific communication, no users of words, lack of meaning
them. In contrast, the theory of Shannon information are transported
physical signs but never meanings.

finite set
Rule Set
or distribution of
a linguistic
same domain
Grammar Dictionary
Statements or
Taken from a
Language spoken
taken from the
praxis of

With these data, it is understood the phenomenon of linguistic communication
constitutes a fundamental basis of the educative act. This can be represented as follows:

Linguistic communication
(Signals and meanings)



Communication conditions

have the same dictionary
have the same grammar
have a domain set
approximately equal.
Now he understands the importance of the Philosophy of
Education applied to the analysis of language education. The philosopher of education
creates no education: is limited to reflect on it, and in this case think the
Languages used in the same. Philosophy is, of course, among other things,
see what they say. Even Plato in his dialogue Cratylus attacked the problem head-
conventionality or not the language.

The contemporary philosophical schools have in common neoempiristas
intelligible fact to do so philosophical analysis of language.
There have been two main directions.


1. logical positivism: science deals with languages
2. analytic philosophy: it deals with the common colloquial language
The theory held by these philosophies is to eliminate false
problems arising from incorrect use of vocabulary and syntax. On issues
educational, philosophical analysis is best done by the Philosophy
Analytical, in contrast, if a question of pedagogical sciences, logical positivism
is best placed to discuss their languages.

1. educators Analytic Philosophy
(The practical)

2. pedagogical
Logical Positivism
What do the education and democracy within the statement "Educate
for a democracy?, this is a work of analytic philosophy. Correct
programming educational objectives requires precise semantics
fed high vocabulary, unless becoming inoperative. Sometimes Philosophy
Analytical and Logical Positivism sometimes being responsible for these issues.
When Monod in his Inaugural Lecture, Chair of Molecular Biology College
France-November 1967 - says, "Le monde, 30-XI-1967:

"The only purpose, the supreme value, the sovereign good in ethics
Knowledge is neither the happiness of mankind, or the time domain or comfort
it ... but the very objective knowledge. "

What is he saying this Nobel Prize, What is an ethics of
knowledge?, what does objective knowledge? ... We are located at a
polysemic speech for lack of precision in terminology. Similar cases
appear constantly in the educational literature.

The book The concept of education, led by Richard S. Peters, no
does nothing but analyze terms widely used in education. Education,
Learning, teaching, games, routines, instruction, discovery, indoctrination,
critical ... are some words considered to minutiae.

One of the tasks of philosophy of education is the analysis of
educational and teaching languages.

2.5 Epistemology of Education
Another way that works in the Philosophy of Education is in
educational epistemology. Like it or not, find out about the positive educational
is the claim of knowledge, and know not, indeed, of any
way, but so that one has the impression of knowing the right thing, such
as educational facts are. There are claims of scientific knowledge and not
doxa vulgar. The claim of science, knowledge about the workability
education, brings us to the issue of what is known as also the issue
when a knowledge is reliable.

Education in all, at once biological, psychological and social, that as
at least it could also happen that it should also involve elements
metaphysical. How the mind trading with this all?., "That is organized
then our thoughts?., is there way of thinking about what education in this real-
If a non-weird or perhaps mutilated?

The real-object of knowledge is half-order. If order
totoal, nothing new would appear in it. If it were, all of it, disorder, nor
organize, and remain completely unknown. It seems that all reality is found in the medium
path between order and disorder. This forces us to assault from various
fronts: from science, but also from the speeches for and metascientific. Of
accept these premises, we will never know the reality of what is, once
and for all. Dialogue, purifrontal approach and re-creating speech unfinished
bring us closer to the truth of the world, but we only approximate it. A
scientific theory of reality is not, by this fact, objective, not a reflection of the
reality but a subjective human projection on the mundane, projection
probably more sensible than others, but not the only valid. He does not view
scientific world that does not include the observer, with his psychology, society
present and historical culture.

We come from nature and now there is no way to match
it. Exiled forever. We pay our knowledge impossible
inevitable nostalgia. Paradise invariably lost; cognition everlastingly

Study of knowledge about the real
Not all kinds
Not all
The mental
How it right when we know something?, Have provided multiple
rules. In the first half of the fourteenth century, the English Franciscan William of Ockham -
1280-1349 - died in Munich, advised to choose the simplest explanation of a
about the same phenomenon when presented two were incompatible.

"Blade of Ockham." Imagined nature is, at bottom, was very simple.
And even the reason might be favorable. Galileo was born in the town of the leaning tower
in 1564, professor at Padua over twenty years, in love with Venice, where
was preparing the crystals for astronomical instruments and grieved in Florence
during the last thirty years, taught that it is not easy to find a
method to reach the world as it is. Not only was delivered to the scrutiny of
truth of nature is also alarmed by the question: what is the nature and
of truth?. He left us a legacy, not cardinal cartoon Eppur, si muove,
so much like the disgruntled, "we assure you that the best scientific method is that
that is eliminating, interminably, the use-based error experimentation.
Here is the start of modern scientific thought. Sir Newton, the English that was
mathematician, physicist, astronomer and even thinker, published in 1687 his final work:
Philosophiae Naturalis Principia methematica-yes, in Latin, all of it. Law
universal gravitation explains the laws of motion of the planets.
Triumph of Galileo's scientific method.

But, how do we know that serious and not know how
hobby?, and what is known serious? A book has the grace John Ziman
together the three approaches that have been touched so bundle file.

Three complete disciplines to undertake a simple demand. Serious matter. To the
soon, we suspect that none of the three, by itself, is able to provide
a satisfying answer. What if epistemology describe as the sum of the three
intellectual assaults the subject of what it is it to learn successfully?

Special Metaphysics


Theory of Knowledge

Mario Bunge prefers the term epistemology that defined as:

"The branch of philosophy that studies the scientific research and its product:
scientific knowledge. "

The three other historic designations do not refer to specific
scientific knowledge, but knowing in general. Epistemology is, of the three, the most
used. Gignosko verb-knowing-and-gnosis-knowledge, the epistemology is
applied to unravel the process of any knowledge. Epistemology, however, come

the Greek verb epístamai-imposed on something because you are sure, and
noun episteme, knowledge unshaken, say from scientific

Epistemology: Study what and when and why it knowledge.
Study the constitution of knowledge.

Epistemology: Study what and when and why knowledge is better
Study the constitution of scientific knowledge.

As noted, the epistemological studies have been conducted from
Philosophy, sociology and even Politics. Calls, therefore, attention
Bunge qualifies, to epistemology, as a branch of philosophy, by defining

The genesis and development of scientific fact are not understood without reference to
subjective and sociological factors. The internal history of science, its logical
development-is not sufficient for its establishment, is needed also to
external history of the same-social needs and ideologies that
involved in the historical constitution of science.
Moreover, it must have the psychology of the investigator.

The construction of science from rationality alone is not feasible for
lack of historical dimension. But neither should we imagine to be possible
training of science to history only as it lacks

We hear: "My teaching is scientific." What does it indicate?: My
pedagogy has the merit of being reliable. What is the science that makes reliable
a statement, an argument or investigation? With a touch of irony uphold
there is no method to prove that a scientific theory is true. Who
would use this method?, "the scientist or, perhaps, the non-scientific? It happens that the
Scientific excathedra, defines what is science. Latin is Greek cathedra
kathédra and hedra, seat and chair. Where you feel the scientist, there is science. It
holiday is that the scientist often change armchair. This
recognizes Feyerabend, who, though actor, also a philosopher of science.

Epistemology began with the English Lord Francis Bacon, which with its
Novum Organon-1620-and with the Magna-Instauratio incabada died in London in
1627-to articulate the method of modern science. It was one of the practical
science, but a speculative it. In the late nineteenth century, Charles Sanders

Peirce, an American from Massachusetts, which has influenced the whole philosophy
Anglo-over Morris, Carnap, Reichenbach, Quine, Jakobson, Chomsky and
even on Wittgenstein, who met through James, advanced many
analysis of the philosophy of science, taken up in our century by Popper. Thus,
hypothetico-deductive conception antiinductivista the method of empirical science,
falsificationist doctrine of theories, the idea of an indeterministic and epistemology
interpretation of probabilities in terms of propensity, the evolutionary model of
growth of science ... are occurrences that German almost repeats what has been written
by Peirce in terms of epistemology.

But between Peirce and Popper stands the rule of logical positivism in these
issues that concern us. For a couple of decades, in the second third of
twentieth-century epistemology succeeds in sharp separation between the observational -
improblemático-and theory, always reducible to the one used as instruments
analysis predicate logic first order to rebuild formally
Structure theory. Later in crisis, as was increasing the volume of
difficulties which were opposed to this conception of epistemology. An epistemology
post-positivist is fired from the sixties. The history of science,
academically introduced during the fifties, was involved in the crisis
positivist epistemology. Toulmin and June are post-positivist. Karl Popper and
argue that no line of demarcation between statements epistemological
empirical and theoretical statements, contrary to the positivists defended by
logical. Write in Appendix X: "Constantly elaborate theories even
when we formulate the most banal statement. "

Epistemology, as we see, have a constant change that causes vertigo.
We do not know what is science, for sure. The didactic book of Chalmers, What
is this thing called science? Give a picture that collects the adventures
hastening of contemporary epistemology.

Despite such removal, may argue that there is anything that encourages
epistemology has always been, and is the recourse to the idea of truth as an idea
regulator. Although we can not get any certainty in science, this is not removed
claim to the truth of each epistemological.

In order to approach the issue of educational epistemology, it is
must raise the issue of "Natural Science" and "Humanities." And finally
Eventually Sciences Humanities and Education are not science
nature. "Two irreconcilable epistemologies?

In science

"Coded language that expresses states
Nature (without



-Proof or relationship between language and

empirical reality studied.
Human Sciences

Mathematised-use models
(With category

-Use of semantic models

It does not seem possible to apply the criteria of natural sciences in
human sciences. Mainly because these latter are in the presence of
human action. What can be treated without recourse to such action explicitly
more sense? The severe drop no meaning or significance, being
just what it is, school education, however, is transfixed by the view
sense or direction given to such activity. Given this fact, no choice
that or give up the majority of chapters in the humanities-those
sections that can not undergo or statistically or admit less criteria
scientificity for them. The semantic language-related education for the casocon
that which is spoken. This language must be precise and will also serve to
to account for the operation of the object being studied. This is an event like
would issue a written text. Hardly, however, may escape semantics
hermeneutics, or interpretation, with the risk of the circle hard salvageable
hernenéutico: "You can only propose an interpretation to the extent that you have
and a pre-understanding of the object-or event-to interpret. " The subject hermeneutic
underlies most of the sections of the human sciences. Any model
semantic-hermeneutic rests on top of budgets do not elucidated. This leaves
course, all aspects of human science that can be addressed

An epistemology of education explicitly what is and what value does each
one of the sciences of education, also finding out what they are, they, as
whole and if they have, as such, autonomous status. To investigate further the degree
consistency between scientific methods and teaching methods.

1. Search for the concept and the legitimacy of each
Sciences, including Education


2. Explore the concept and the legitimization of
set of science education.

Relate the scientific methods and methods
Joseph D. Novak, from Ausubel's learning theory and model
evolution of the concepts of J. Toulmin, proposes an explanation of learning
concepts, an explanation that leaves the current learning
discovery, defending the reception learning. Also in this type of
work they are scored, at times, epistemological, but in this case, this description
is in line with the genetic epistemology of Piaget, and works on models
acquisition of knowledge, something different from the formula discussed here
Epistemology of Education.

The Epistemology of Education is not for another important task
the pedagogies of learning if they are true or false and, of course, pointing
why they are true or false.

Anthropology of Education 2.6
We continued with the description of the materials that can be treated by a
Philosophy of Education, study materials that make up its cognitive space
as likewise legitimize the existence of it.

A book by French anthropologist Godelier mind that Barua, a tribe of two
thousand individuals, more or less, lost in a valley of New Guinea Ocean island
Pacific constitute a society of oppression that the phenomena shown
mass and forthright. But this is not the class struggle with mental category
Marx understood the historical complexity, "but the contest between the two sexes.
The rites of initiation-breed educational activity-that anthropology
group, according to which men are openly than females. The
semen is the symbol and manifestation of male eminence;
plays the role of vitamins in the West. Taken orally in
during marriage ceremonies and initiation rites. The educational practices
are therefore in terms of anthropology or concept we have of human beings.

Joseph Catalan Calassanc -1557-1648 -, who founded a group of men
dedicated to religious education, he sent nearly 12,000 letters, many of
which were dealt with educational matters. All orientations, recomentaciones,
mandates, reprimands or congratulations reinforced three main pedagogical
practices, according to Severino Giner:

"The orderly and regular catechetical instruction, the practices of piety or life
Christian moral education, civic and social. "

Why such different applications and not others?; Because of the
Weltansschauung he had for him. The Christian understanding of man as
entrains its design educator. Just as in today's Cuba
Weltansschauung Marxist, who seized the brain of Mr. Castro, channels and
directs all educational practice dictated by political masters of this island

Since we have written texts, there is a close relationship
between the image of man and educational practice. So in Greece, Homer education
spawned the field of culture we call Classical Greece and that prevailed between the
VIII and V century BC, was an educational activity based on style
knightly style is inspired by the vision of man's poems contained in
the Iliad and the Odyssey. Anthropology, however, Spartan, built an education
military and sports.

When the intelligent Aurelius Augustine, of Tagaste, born in North Africa
in 354, writes in his In Evangelium Ioannis -26.4 to 6: "quid fortius encourages desiderata
veritatem quan? "- And what is more violent, the spirit of man, that
right? -, assuming that the whole truth is Christ, is already foreshadowed his conception
pedagogical-materialized in the De Magistro.

Both educational activities such as educational study, as we have just
attention, are both linked to a representation of man.

It may be funny, but true, that as scientific theories have
charged peak, has been pursued with more zeal the moralistic. The
psychotherapy, particularly political science and Educational Sciences
show special interest in finding meaning to everything human. We have had to
await the twentieth century, however, to see how this man became an object
explicit investigation. Such trials and inquiries have been launched since the
Husserl's phenomenology, Shelley, "from Existential Philosophy, Heidegger, Jaspers,
Sartre and from psychotherapy, Frankl. But even physicists have
revealed by the theme of man as well as Schrodinger said target physics
theoretical framework to answer the questions: Where?, where? And why? The
human existence. Heisenberg has shown himself couples concerns.

Humans have been the subject of care and anxiety from vintage times.
The German Max Scheler -1874-1928 - was asked: What is man, what place
takes in being?, from afar have provided answers. Thus we have
the biblical book of Job, and in the V century BC, gives the following solution:

"As a born and wilted flower, flees like a shadow without power
stop. "(14, 1.2)

There is no record educante Ratings: these are not possible without any model
of humanity, these models fall in the end in a worldview or way
intelligible overall everything.

Being an anthropology of man doctrine, a doctrine that is fed
various sources, obvious that pedagogy can not ignore it
in the development of standards in order to education. The relationship between anthropology and
pedagogy is not unidirectional, but mutual, the first is enriched in the same way
with the input of the second. The educational work contributes to understanding
history of human beings and vice versa. How could today deprived of education
any idea, at least about man's existence?

(How intelligent the human phenomenon)



1. The anthropological sense helps you find the
autonomous constitution of Pedagogy

2. The anthropological sense underlies the act educante.
Having made such a reference to anthropology, just
discovering that we do not know very well what we mean. Input assails us
polysemy of this significant: we speak of physical anthropology, social anthropology,
cultural anthropology, psychological anthropology and psychoanalysis and anthropology
philosophical and metaphysical. Which aim in this work? The measured Kant, a German
born in 1724 in Konigsberg-city that the Soviets were after
1945 and they renamed it Kaliningrad, "referred to three
anthropology: theoretical anthropology, anthropology pragmatic and moral anthropology.

We continued irresolute and embarrassed.

Natural: Physical Anthropology

social or cultural anthropology
psychological and psychoanalytic anthropology



ontological anthropology
hermeneutic anthropology (phenomenological)



Islamic anthropology
Indian anthropology

The scientific anthropology are indispensable to pass the Pedagogy and
auxiliary sciences to be the same the same basis as neurology, endocrinology,
psychology, history, sociology or economics. But is obvious that for
Philosophy of Education is the philosophical anthropology "in the two modalities
indicated "that it is concerned. Gehlen, Plessner, Landmann, Postmann, Strock,
Levinas, Ricoeur, Girard ... are authors who have made outstanding contributions to this
particular. A philosophical anthropology is an understanding of man beyond
possible experience, but this much, never against no matter what experience and

always with the intention of obtaining an orientation to the vicissitudes of human existence. The
philosophical anthropology will present to other anthropological.

Philosophical Anthropology: metaphysical doctrine that
anthropologies booting positive regard all
knowledge that makes possible and makes sense, the
human being.

Faced with ontological anthropology, anthropology of being the hermeneutic-
two-philosophical, rather than deriving the essence of man of a principle or principles,
human features of existing records that may become problematic and,
problematic, lighting. Thus, the analysis carried out by Kierkegaard, the
distress, it ceases to be a morbid vision of removing "banality cuotidianamudándose
a feature of the human prefect, is an analysis
producer hermeneutic philosophical anthropology.

Philosophical anthropology, not only to guide the education, but also unifies
multiplicity of knowledge about education to pull ahead and, on the other hand,
educational activity can not fulfill its duty if we do not have at hand a
man model, it is changeable.

Tasks of the

1.Perfilar the meaning of man from the proceedings


2. To provide models of human existence that make
Understandable education.
The man in the process of education provides the proper object of anthropology
Philosophy of Education, the act educante enables the understanding of human beings
while existential anthropological paradigms make us understand the act
educante. Education of man and man's existence are interdependent.
The manifestations of man light to education to the extent that those
are considered through the prism of meaning and wholeness.

Although outline and as a sketch, I offer an anthropological model in
various tables (next page), which, once unwound and spread, it could
fulfill its mission of making sense of the event educante.

Man-gestated by essential determinations without which
we would have human-generated culture, culture, and not of anyone else.
The man, in turn, is the work of their own culture.

Produces meaning
Humanity Produce
Biology spirit Historical Society
man Culture
Never just, man, to make sense, and the culture of childbearing never ends
man. Actually, the anthropos is unfathomable and therefore education
yours is inexhaustible. The term comes from the outside: the dead of each
learner and the total and irreparable defeat of humanity by some accident
and sinister villain. Both the human being as the educational activity remain
Structurally, all the time, open and full of unpredictable possibilities.

2.7 Teleology of educational fact
Some have argued that the philosophy of education should address
exclusively for educational purposes. I believe this is a tip and
rude. The indubitable, however, is that education is not Teleology
possible discussion of the subjects of philosophy of education.

Paul Claudel was a French letter, as well as diplomat, who met with
beautiful death in Paris in 1955 the Lord. In late 1918, returning from Rio de
Janeiro, boat, accompanied by Darius Milhaud miusic, a Provence that never
turned his back to his homeland of Norway lobster and Romans. Fifty-three days until
reach New York. Claudel took many hours of the voyage beginning to translate
Biblical Psalms-a total of 73 - the king of Israel, David, -1000 to 972 before
Christ had composed to be sung and danced. Captures these poems Claudel
as fragments of an immense dialogue between man and God. Writing Psalms
Why?; Translating psalms, why?, A man for what? What question
finalist is worthless? Botez go!, If it were true we would all, some stunned
they do not stop and talk to.

A human being is weak and shows little biological or psychological and
socially. It is a unfinished beast, and it is because he knows it. Damn and magnificent
consciousness. Any other animal is complete and finalized since it sticks to be
what it is. No, well, the human beast, which is also what is not yet. This
man forces him to deal with their environment, to decide what he will do it and him. To the

discovered alienated from the things around him, the man has no other
output resolved to act on their own risk. Free means free for. The
Gross is not never free from their stimuli and thus is never free for

We say that an act that makes sense and therefore it is understandable when
line with the intention that anyone has proposed, or made in advance. Action
worth causing insofar that directs target. This-what
aimed-for goal or end is worth it. We do not shoot into the rickety,
insignificant and petty. This we already possess. The fact about places in their pure
meat anthropological dynamics: the man says the world because somehow not
is and puts it distinctly confirm mood, ie culturally. Gadamer
stresses the linguistic freedom of man against the world:

"This freedom includes the linguistic constitution of the world. The one part of
the other and vice versa. Rise above the constraints of what goes on
each meeting from the world means having to take language and world. "
Truth and Method, Ed

Speech, freedom, purpose, values. A reasonable sequence. (See pp.

From what we have noted, do not be surprised that Wilhelm Dilthey type:

"The more general condition of the rules or universally valid standards of life
psychic, cultural system based on it, and in particular also education,
lies in the teleological character of mental life. The fundamental principle of a
education, therefore, is an assertion: the mental life has a teleology
internal and therefore her own perfection. "

Purpose, teleology, educational Axiology. Be precise terminology. Latin
finis both pointed to the factual term limit or anything, or process, such as
just-perfection that is, making it completely a thing or

Sale of the Costa Brava, in a car, to Rome. Rome is the finis desired
that end and will total the process. In the cute and sexy people in Cannes,
the Cote d'Azure, car accident. She who achieved the fullness of the route
in the city of the Tiber, dies. Cannes has moved in the finis of the journey in the end as
Indeed, as information, such as accident, as reality.

Teleology. The Greek verb tello meant to finish his round. Telos means end
and Term. Teleios, Teleos was the end, the perfect and finished. Ambiguity as well, but
less than in Latin. Telos is just not the brutal finishing.

Axiology. Laid Greek meant axio th element, or judge, worthy, or just. Axios
was worth it, the just and valuable.

Both Latin and Greek have revealed the ambiguity
semantics: the end or purpose? And uncertainty: something better because I judge him valuable

or judge him valuable because it is worth? Finis, telos, Axios, we have not overcome the
original dark. All acknowledge that morbid educational teleology inaugural.
-Final (term as data)


-Purpose (term as perfection)
-Social (something better because people so choose)


-Ontological (something worth independent of men)

It is not surprising that the writings produced about axiology offer two
distinct ways: collecting orders accepted values
It is largely a human-sociological work group, and reflect on
nature and origin of values, philosophical task. Within this second
direction have formed three main schools of contemporary thought
referred to as pedagogical axiology:

Neo-Kantian School: values are purely a priori rules
Formal (Rickert, Munsterberg)


School phenomenological values are ideal objects, more

beyond time and space (Scheler, Spranger)
Realist: all reality is a carrier of value (Lotz Foerster)

Teachers Sarramona and Ferrandez (Education, Ed CEAC, Barcelona),
point out as attempts to propose to the aims of such values education
general and suitable for all civilizations, just as giving vague
remarkable as they are. Further, morality, education, etc.

Whitehead-1861-1947-was an English mathematician who wrote Principia
mathematics in collaboration with Bertrand Russell. He went on to philosophy and ended
being interested in educational issues. In the Purpose of Education launched two
educante teleological paradigms of fact:

"Educational stating two commandments: Do not teach too many subjects and

is taught, teach thoroughly. "

Even limited to education, proclaimed two standards. It should ask ourselves in
What underlying the two patterns?, why not teach them many things and defend all
superficially?, or why not propose a minimum learning? In Plain
the fragility and weakness of the values of which paw. The difficulty
teleological education is remarkable when the foundation intends to propose
epistemological and ontological thereof. Or, perhaps, the educational purposes
always walk over the abyss?

Garrido Garcia said as the only teleological disciplines, of all
box set Sciences Education, Philosophy and Education
Theology of Education. But it happens that the first is unsuccessful when
seeks to impose a list of values, purposes, merely fumbling
how valuable foundation. Theology, however, it does score, but it is
base to accept some texts as not debatable, is the Bible, the Koran or the four
books Veda, India.

Despite so many and so great a weakness, as unavoidable is that we can not
educate not propose something without that something look better than another proposal.

When you educate, if you educate someone, for something

That anything immediate or mediate, that is describable or single object
confusion of desire, it is irrelevant for the moment, what is significant is that by educating, not
just say something, but we want something. Why do you want?, Why
OK? and how do we know that is valuable?, and, above all, what value means?, does
please remember-or rather remember what our ancestors convicted, or does
perhaps something else? We educating unavoidable with what we do and the
what we do, techno-education-level of efficiency and philosophy
education, field of surprise, embarrassment, the confusion. (See page

The how of education is a variable dependent on five factors,
of which we are considering the intentional lie within it stopped
in the goals as those who hold ultimate intentions, if they can-a
objectives and projects.

The history of educational ideas form a motley succession. The Macedonian
Aristotle-384-322-taught, in the Athens of the monuments harmonics, that
happiness provided by the sure and certain knowledge was the highest purpose
education. During the exciting medieval times, the Neapolitan Thomas

claimed, in a Paris that involves the building of Notre Dame, that the goal of
education is under-virtutis status, he said. The Neapolitan was born in
1227. Thomas Aquinas, then holy. The modern age, which began to dance with
Italian Renaissance, he thought that maybe no aims of education. If the
man, as Rousseau said, is good when it leaves the skilled hands of
Creator, what he is looking outside the values that you refine? The
contemporary thought, which makes the first jump with the noisy revolution
Of 1789, is more mundane: there is no purpose to speak from the
outside of the education itself. John Dewey, who died in the lush metropolis
American of skyscrapers in 1952, was in favor of
educational purposes, but they do not live there, or after, but in the belly of
educational process. Dewey speaks thus:

"We are not interested ... a purpose outside the educational process which is
subject of education. "

Teleology: philosophical knowledge that reflects on the nature, source
and foundation of the values that legitimate the educational process
serve as goals.

The Educational Teleology end-goals distinction between values-that
are objects or things, social, and values-goals-which are autonomous objects

Social facts (of which the sociologist takes stock


Ideal ontological (trying to uncover the philosopher)

How many teachers rejected by ghostly, the second model
values have no way of referring to educational values and purposes
substantiated. The imperative "standard" does not follow the sign-the fact. The
Positivism is limited to what is, without access to what must have.
Those teachers, however, accept the values of value in themselves,
find they can not identify a list of such "values" purposes "to be
by definition these meta-historical. They know they require, but do not know what they are.

It seems that always comes to educational teleology impossible. Of
However, these issues are dealing with a Teleology of Education.

2.8 Philosophy of History Education
It is a matter of course understand that one of the outstanding tasks of the Philosophy of
Education is precisely to develop a philosophy of History Education
nevertheless judge that this is a task assigned to it in full.

Marvin Harris Cannibals and Kings has written. In this unique book and shocking
seems likely tell hunters Stone Age lived better
us. Had to work fewer hours than current citizens
livelihood. There are people who work and save contemporary along
thirty years to get the privilege of seeing a few square meters
grass through the sale. And further that such results are a
privileged. This luxury prehistoric man had it all. The diet of it, on the other
hand, was rich in protein and its meat was not saturated colors and
antibiotics. Amazing and weird book, but since then, the work hinges on
a specific philosophy of history. The conclusions drawn from the whole story,

or a considerable section of it, are not objective and virgins, the philosophy of
History helps to clarify the intricacies and may warp.
The human being is time - and not, in fact, Khronos, clockwise, but
Kairos, opportunity, "best timing, startled consciousness due to the passing
the duration. The wrinkles on the face are accused in the same way the chimp
when the days and nights have accumulated too much on your skin. Time
biological parallel to the astronomical. The anthropological time, however, arises from
amazement, surprise, the shock, the shock that he assaulted the man when
consciousness gives him the time on their hands to be autofabrique with him. But
Time is ambiguous. Open to the possible "positive" but at all possible, to destroy
and also negativo.-death-experience this contradiction individual
fundamental and starts to create conditions biography if psychobiological and
psychosocial permit, "all individuals launches history
hoping to resolve in this manner the essential contradiction. A professor of rhetoric
Milan during the 80s of the fourth century, summed up very vigorously temporality
Bottom line: "Ex Nile in nihilum." What is the time before the conscience of man?
that running, panting, out of nowhere to nowhere. The teacher was called Aurelius
Augustinus. Christians called it later, saint Augustine.

The story builds up the attempts of humanity in order to resolve their
fundamental problem is not other than to get there, mankind, to be. History
of education as a fact and not as knowledge, is the same feat but
viewed from the tradition or delivery from the Latin tradere, transmit and deliver it
already known and practiced by predecessors in this exciting and risky game
have to be a man. Without education is, at least, transfer culture, and this is
cumulative tradition, "the human story of great interest to pedagogy.

Knowing the history is known to man, this animal and never educating

It is not possible understandable a particular educational process-eg the relationship between
entry and exit of the institution teacher - without reference to context, including
the historical course, even if in this case at the wrong contexts.
They also are essential. If the process is also studied historical
more reason to understand from its context, inserts the above. How
take over the teaching of Plato's thought without any dialogue with
precedents?, Plato himself well understood and shared his ideas using
dialogues with peers and with their predecessors. Jaeger argues that the writings
Plato must be considered as the culmination of the history of paideia
Greek. More than 400 years accumulated in the Platonic writings. In what way
understand the Western education, or Christian, "here, Christianity is a way
culturally, ignoring educations sprouted in Jerusalem, Athens and Rome
points of the triangle that forms, over time, to the West?

Greek historians, Herodotus, and Herodotus, V century BC
who ended his years in the south of Italy, is considered the first historian, found out
facts, crowded and offered as well, joined. It was not episteme -
science in Greece due to lack of systematization. But, just look at
etymology, it appears that history is bound to historéo, to add data but
spirit of knowledge, know what gives the management of such data. At least
kindly suggest this reading.

The objective time in the history of humanity, real estate, and the
evolution of nature. A historical fact is when it is linked to a group
occasional human and purpose of it: there is, therefore, without reference to history
values. In evolution, however, there is a simple process, some things come from
others. Nothing more. In real history, certain facts are linked to others
before and after. The mood of the positivist historian falls into the blunder
want to catch unrelated historical facts.

Just as Chomsky's generative grammar is proposed to account for the
linguistic competence of speakers stressing the linguistic creativity or
ability to form new words and novel way of linking the
semantic representations, so the story seems to have a
competition to produce new facts according to some historical grammar also

History as science does more than just scientifically to the succession of
read historical facts and, as a whole, so that they appear as
intelligible shedding light on the generative force of the real story.

San Agustin said the man was capax, Dei, or the greed of
Absolute. In this perspective, engendering power of history is placed outside
the same story.

The Jewish philosopher Levinas, born in Lithuania in 1905, radicalized the
transcendence of God by insisting that God is transcendent to the whole being and not just
this historical mode. Proclamation Ethique et infini.

"The word transcendence means you can not think, at a time, God and
... God can not be part of the whole being. "

The German Hegel, an admirer of Napoleon and died in the monumental Berlin
due to cholera in 1831, writes strongly in the Preface to the Phenomenology

"It all has to be said is essentially a result, only the final
is what it truly is, and therein lies their very nature, that is to be
real subject, or becoming, himself. "

The momentum generated from the story is also absolute, pear and not a
all to the extent that it is rational for the Absolute Requirement, a requirement that
breeds history. Another German, Marx died in London in 1883 when imperial
had 65 years, inspired by Hegel but subverted it, imagine that
motor of history is to discover only in social production, in
ways that make men work.

In none of these models to understand the history-Augustine, Hegel,
Marx, the man in the flesh counts for nothing. We work for
biography us, how are we to intervene in the extensive and long history of all?
Man is unique, Alexander, Genghis Khan, Columbus, Napoleon and Lenin is not the author
history, nor spectator of it, but one patient and an instrument of
itself. Well, at least, this presents an interesting field of Philosophy
History. What no solution, the matter?, So much the better to turn and
realize, ultimately, our limits.

Utopias, for example, Liberté, Egalité et Fraternité "constant during the
human productions, show that men want to heal the evil of
history. Maybe making plays only one role utopias
psychotherapy, but could also happen that it was dissatisfaction

A Philosophy of History of Education will consider the above
questions and business. What she does Dewey is to assess temporality
education. In his book Human Nature and Conduct states:

"The memory of the past, the observation of the present and forecast the future are
indispensable, but they are for this release. "

The history of education will release utopia, release
moderate, of course, but ultimately released. Dewey has his philosophy of
history of education.

The mission of the historian is to improve the world, but to understand it better
possible. Change history is the claim of political, union and men
religious. The historian is limited to our knowledge, this knowledge is serious and
invaluable for the teacher.

The current concept of history as a science integrates separate data
historiography, geography, economics, sociology, demography and statistics.
Thanks to the modern French historical school, the story works with schemas
close to those of other social sciences. The historian, a prisoner of his rich and
own vocabulary and its practical conditions the historical narrative rather than the
actors' own history. However, the more references put in
comparison, more suggestive is the lesson today.

The history of institutions educantes


History of educational ideas

History of educational technology

History of educational contexts (attitudes, attitudes
sex, death ..., fashion, religious beliefs ...)

The history-science depends on the sources available and the historian.
Its aim is modest and rather thin, but inexcusable. First reflections
brought, what is the role of philosophy in the History of Education?


Paving the epistemology of the History of Education
of Philosophy

Find the address is the educational phenomenon

Discover the facts constants educators.

The philosophy of history, Dilthey's education makes him say, to the latter, not
There are no permanent value that can be proposed to the pedagogy. Not all draw,

however, couples philosophical conclusions of the history of education. Here is a
brief outline, which seems nonsensical, referring to the historical constants of
education. An example is minimum:

Education perpetuates this group

Education cohesive group

Elementary education is a function of higher education
Education provides social power
Education serves the political and economic powers.

The what and for what educational

The Greeks distinguished between poiesis-facere of Latinos-and practice-the
agere of Latinos. The first word indicated the transient aspect of our
activity that others provide the second word pointing to the
inherent aspect of our actions, what we built as biographies.

As human structure (which we are "education")


As human project (for which we are "education")

Men are on one side "poiesis" or series of educational events in
the sense of having to make us do things. On the other hand we are responsible
of our education to prefer what we want to be. We have the structure learners'
education-and we do the odd-educational project on what educacionalla
Second and third parts of this book try to answer this pair of
approaches to educational phenomenon. The "what" education is connected with data
scientist: the "why" education is basically has to do with metaphysics.
As a result, present a comprehensive treatment in the first case and treatment
exhibition of the various "why" in the second.

Educational purposes are mounted necessarily the fact that reality
is constitutively human learners. "Form" constantly demand an educational
axiological content to be filled. Such "content", or values, from the
anthropological model in turn supported the world view that every age-appropriate
and class privilege. Consistent with such an approach, first introduced

"form" of education, reserving for the latter part of the book's main
"Contained" more or less educational force in the contemporary world.

1 Bloch, MA nouvelle Philosophie de l education, Ed PUF Paris.
Human reality, O, Philosophies of Education, Ed CEAC, Barcelona.
Garcia Carrasco, Science Education, Santillana, Madrid.
Kant, E. Southern Reflection I l Education, Ed Vrin, Paris.
Leif, J. Rustin et G: Philosophie de l Education, Ed Delegrave, Paris.
Maritain, J. Pour une Philosophie de l Education, Ed Arthème Librairie Fayard, Paris.
Moore: An Introduction to the theory of education, Alianza, Madrid.
O'Connor, DF Introduction to the Philosophy of Education Ed, mercifully, Buenos Aires.
Reboul, O. The philosophie de l'éducation; Ed. PUF, Paris
Reboul: les Methods of Philosophy de l'éducation; Rev. Enrahonar No. 5 UAB
Sancristóbal, A.: Philosophy of Education, Ed, Rialp, Madrid.
Suchodolski, B.: La pédagogie et les grands courants philosophiques, Ed Du Scarabée, Paris.
Suchodolski, B.: The human education of man, Ed Laia, Barcelona.


José Solano Alpizar
Masters Program

This research work is currently being developed as part of
master's thesis project with a major in science research
educational DIE / CINVESTAV. (1) The considerations that are responsive to
initial stages of the research which is why, in this paper only
exposed partial and preliminary results about the displacements
experienced by the notion of education in educational discourse for America
America during the second half of the twentieth century.

The subject will try to contrast with the objective of training
discourse (2) of the "Education for Development" and "Education for
Productive Transformation with Equity ", in order to track changes
has been experimenting with the notion of education of a discursive formation to another.
The central hypothesis is that it supports has been taking a shift in
how to conceptualize education and the educational in discourse for America
America; hypothesis forces us to venture into an area of study where
analyzing these changes and continuities over half a century.

The research is part of the land of historiography, and more
precision in the field of "history of concepts", which the sister of one or
otherwise the type of research conducted since the mid-century by
thinkers like Koyre, Bacherlard and Canguilhem, who analyzed from a
historical-epistemological construction process of ideas
particularly in the sciences.

The paper looks intersecting historical, epistemological and sociological
to realize a socio-historical reconstruction of nodal notions
this case-education in the discourse, in order to track
transits experienced by that notion.

This addresses the notions of "development" and "productive transformation
with equity ", in order to analyze the role attributed to education in each case and
specifically focusing on education as transit capital investment
humane education as investment in knowledge.

From education to development to education for productive transformation

with equity.

"Education for Development

In the postwar period, the notions of "development" and "education" went

shape in Latin America as ideological constructs or myths that

proposed to explain the actual processes of reproduction, growth and change

structure in society, while seeking to show how to be accelerated,

manage and use (Wolfe, 1983, p. 155). These ideological constructs

had as one of their main functions to offer a possible model on

how Latin American societies were organized to respond to

prevailing international economic order.

From this point of education began to be associated increasingly with
development model that was being driven by agencies
ECLAC-particularly international-and to show strong
identification with the guidelines of the neoclassical paradigm of economics
development that is grounded in the assumptions that: 1) economic development is a
gradual and continuous process, 2) is a harmonious and cumulative process, 3) offers
good prospects, in terms of possibilities and benefits for a growth-
continued economic (and Nuggent Yotopoulos, 1981, p.25).

This gradualist and evolutionary perspective had come to permeate
pedagogy and sociology approaches strongly influenced by
Economists and impregnated period of assessments drawn from theories
like W. Rostow, according to which the most "backward" should
make a whole set of adjustments to reach the stage or stage in which
were the "developed" (W. Rostow, 1963).

In this historical context, epistemic, the postulates of the neoclassical paradigm
of the economy served as theoretical and methodological nutrient in the process of
emergence of a set of theories about the development were shared by
following assumptions: 1) develop means directed toward specific goals
general correspond to a certain stage of human progress and
society, the model abstracts from more developed societies
world, 2) underdeveloped countries will walk on these companies once
removed some obstacles social, political, cultural and institutional, 3) is
necessary to coordinate certain social and political forces that support policy
development, just as is necessary to create an ideological basis to organize the
national will of individual countries to do the "tasks" of development (Two
Santos, 1980, pp.151-152).

On the basis of these statements, the notion of "education" began to
experience a gradual shift that would bring it to become the
principal "factor for development", starting to receive their education systems
significance, not so much of themselves as the fact of being in a society
capitalism, where the functionality of education began to be seen from
economic, political and ideological. (3). In this sense the relationship between

education and other activities companies acquired a character of relations
supply and demand, putting more emphasis on the adjustment problems between
production of the educational system and human resource demand emanating from
production system, immediate requirements for takeoff model
development was being implemented.

The discursive formation of "education for development" that emerged in this
historical and conceptual context was marked by a set of sentences
concrete, which they attributed to education the task of training human resources
rated (Shultz, 1968), formed into an instrument of technical progress (Mitchell
Echavarria, 1979) and mechanism for social selection and promotion (Medina Echavarria,
1979), while it rose to the level of investment, level of human capital
(Becker, 1975).

These statements allow us to perceive the concept of education
underlying the development model, the same way that enables us to understand the
assigned to the educational role within the discursive formation of the "Education for
Development. "

The various tenets of the so-called "theories of human capital" that
began to proliferate in the literature of the period served as a pretext for decisions
they adopted "in education, the various Latin American governments
thus constituting a prerequisite education for the "development
economic "to aspiring nations of the area, reason enough to consider
as an investment that would produce future benefits, in terms of higher
income for individuals and for society in general (Schultz, 1959
1961, Becker, 1975).

Education for change with equity

In the transition from the eighties to the nineties began to circulate new
approaches with a modified design of educational, generating a
shift in educational discourse, for Latin America that bet on a
"Education for Development" now has a bet on "Education for
Productive Transformation with Equity ". This shift we can see
more conceptual clarity from the publication of the ECLAC document
entitled "Productive Transformation with Equity: The first priority of America
America and the Caribbean in the nineties. " It will come to decant the main
lessons learned from the economic crisis of the eighties (4) and which makes
turn around its theme which is considered as the primary task and common to
all Latin American countries: changing production patterns with equity.

According to this document, seek the growth of
economies, income distribution, consolidation of processes
democratization of the area, the acquisition of greater autonomy and the creation of
conditions conducive to halt environmental deterioration and improving
quality of life of the entire population (ECLAC, 1990).

In the field of education itself served as the proposal ECLA
background to the proposal "Education and knowledge: keys to change
fairly productive ", a document produced jointly by
ECLAC / UNESCO, (5) whose main objective came to be to help create
during the nineties educational conditions and training
incorporation of scientific and technological progress that made possible the transformation
of production structures in a context of progressive social equity. Objective
would take place through a broad reform of educational systems and
job training in the region, as well as by generating
endogenous capacities for the utilization of scientific and technological progress
(ECLAC / UNESCO, 1992).

As seen posting regarding the notion of education
to be handled in the discourse of "Education for Development and is managed
on "Education for transformation with equity" we highlight the
emphasis clearly presents the new discursive formation of the ideas of
"Education as an investment in knowledge" (ECLAC / UNESCO, 1992; PUND, 1992)
"Education and knowledge at the heart of productive transformation with equity"
(ECLAC / UNESCO, 1992).

You can see here a shift in discourse, since it passes
"education as a factor of development" to "education as a factor in
productive transformation with equity "movement that can not be considered
as a simple cosmetic change, such as bad you might think, but rather we
refers to an act of transcendence ideological, political and economic, since the type
the idea of "productive development and transformation" implies a particular view
the type of societal system that is bet on each case, while we
necessarily refer to a particular model of State (6) and which caution
responds to the new historical context-epistemic.

The new discursive formation is not talk of education as a "factor
development "(Medina, 1979) so that the idea of wholeness and integrity that
referred to in the manuscripts of the seventies and eighties and is consistent with the
development is conceived (Iglesias, 1979; Prebisch, 1970, 1983), has a general idea
they figure their chances, particularly, in the "economic change" is
ie not already refers to the structural change that brings both elements
economic and social, but accuracy is only performed on
to changing production structures in a context of greater equity. (7).

This shift guides us towards a new change that seems
only hue, but also involves political considerations, economic and
significant ideological, as is the fact overestimate the role and that is given
knowledge as the axis of economic change. This role is stellar
assigned to knowledge in the ECLAC / UNESCO proposal reflects the type of assessment
who comes to give education in the context of globalization, (8) while
allows us to observe the reorientation which comes to give it, respect to you

basic assumptions of the old "theories of human capital", which nevertheless
remain in excess, the basic premises that characterize them, in conjunction with
new context of economic transnationalization, education is no longer seen
exclusively as "forming qualified human resources", as this
responded in much the previous model, but now it is conceived as an instrument
able to enable an individual to "retraining", ie, be willing and available to
change their capital and the international market (ECLAC / UNESCO, 1992).

This situation can see that lie on the development model was sufficient
to build the skilled workforce now requires a rethinking of
idea of training and development of resources that are managed before, and
but although it retains the assumption that resources training
human is a critical factor for economic change, are reworked
so that not only covered the work of "training" and "train", but also
to "retrain" (ECLAC / UNESCO, 1992). The training of human resources
qualified and are here drawn from an "instrumental rationality and
utilitarian ", that is necessary to" conceive, design and develop education
according to contemporary requirements of production and work "
(ECLAC / UNESCO, 1992).

Knowledge is become a factor in productivity,
displacing skilled labor as it was conceived in decades
above and within the model of "Education for Development (Granja, 1995). The
Education is no longer seen as both an instrument of "social mobility and selection"
(Medina Echavarria, 1979) at least in the sense that he conceived in the
earlier speech and the importance assigned to these assumptions, but
now emphasizes the need to strengthen the "knowledge industries", a
knowledge which is imbued with the ideas brought about by new
technological revolution.

Education and knowledge and technology with them, appear
instrumentally subordinated as a condition for achieving the objectives of the
competitiveness and integration into the international market, an essential requirement for
fulfill the tasks of democratization and the pursuit of equity (9).

Thus, in almost all official documents issued during the last
five-year agreement that knowledge is the main factor for
productive transformation (10), positioning itself as the linchpin of a speech
their feet and looking like in past decades, seeks to achieve legitimacy
and recognition both at the governmental level and the level of circles
intellectuals and politicians of Latin America.

ECLA's proposal education and knowledge are converted into the
relevant concepts of a process of "economic change" based on the
"Deliberate and systematic incorporation of technical progress", whose purpose is to
"Increase productivity levels and the spread of productive employment"
(ECLAC, 1992, P.18). In this way education becomes a key variable

the modernization process, and efforts should be directed to the
implementation of appropriate competition, the participation of modern citizenship
according to national objectives and the efficient participation of the consumer.

The displacement observed is therefore the assessment is made of
education and in the functionality that is credited in connection with the new
proposal and agree with the new paradigm, because now is not the
education as a citizen in a society whose development model
is grounded in the idea of "market protection", "inward development", "development
autoconcentrado autonomous ", but an education that responds
explicitly to the requirements of a changing international market and a
discourse context in which states and reiterates that Latin America can not continue
living off the income of their resources because the strategy should include a
incorporation which requires discipline to achieve social aspirations, which
design and implement a policy of human resource development and
redefine the role of the state.

Here are some of the insights it and some of the considerations that
been surfacing in the process of this research, which as noted in the beginning,
still in course.

It is expected that once this investigation, contributes to the effort
analytic tracking the play of displacements experienced by
notions of education and development in educational discourse in Latin America and
at the same time bring about the overlap between those movements and
nodal set of concepts: state, society, citizen, etc., which allow
understand the process of setting up both discursive and the
geared to make them explicit in allowing the level of the logic of constitution

It is important to note that research not only lies within an area of
work is just beginning to expand its reach into Latin America, but that
introduced into the path of the analysis of conceptual formations
education from a historical-conceptual short-term situation that
gives relevance to the analysis, given the lack of work at this level.


-World Bank Development in Practice, Priorities and Strategies for Education, workd

Bank Publication, Washington, 1995.

-Becker, Gary, Human Capital, Alliance Madrid, 1975.

-Bracho, Teresa, and Zamudio, Andrés, "The economic returns of schooling

Mexico, "Mexican Economic Journal, New era, vol. III, no. 2 seconds

semester, 1994.

-ECLAC, Productive transformation with equity. The priority of America

America and the Caribbean in the nineties, ECLAC, Santiago, 1990.

-CEPAL/UNESCO, Education and Knowledge: Basic Pillars of Changing Production Patterns with

Equity, ECLAC / UNESCO, Santiago, 1992.

"Delors, Jacques, Learning: The Treasure Within, UNESCO, Paris, 1997.

-Fajinzilber, Fernando, "Demand for education arising from the transformation
with equity ", in Bulletin Major Project of Education in Latin America
and the Caribbean, Vol. 26 December, UNESCO / OREALC, Santiago, 1991.

Fonacault-Michel, The Truth and juridical forms, Gedisa, Barcelona 1995.

The words and things, Siglo XXI, Mexico, 1996. Granja, Josephine, "Constitution sociohistorical
and epistemological knowledge about school and education, "
Paper presented at the Symposium of Educational Research Caminos, Mexico
September 1996.

- "From Education Development Education for productive transformation
with Equity. " Shifts in the educational discourse in Latin America "
Revista Mexicana de Sociología 3, Mexico, 1997.

"Iglesias, Enrique," Education and Development in Latin America ", Regional Conference
Education Ministers and Ministers of Planning of Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexico City, December 5, 1979.

"Jaguaribe, Helio, Ferrer, Aldo, Wionczek, and Theotonio Miguel dos Santos, The

political-economic dependency of Latin America, Siglo XXI, Mexico, 1980.

-Medina Echavarria, Jose Philosophy, Education and Development, Siglo XXI, Mexico, 1979.

-ONU/CEPAL, Education, human resources and development in Latin America

UN / ECLAC, New York, 1968.

World -PNUD/UNESCO/UNICEF/Banco, World Declaration on Education for All,
UNESCO, Jomtien, Thailand, 1990.

"Prebisch, Raul, Transformation and Development, the great task of Latin America, FCE,
Mexico, 1970.

- "Five stages in my thinking on development" in the Quarter Economic, Vol.
198, Mexico, 1983.

"Sunkel, Osvaldo and Pedro Paz, Latin American Underdevelopment and development theory,
Siglo XXI, Mexico, 1985.

-Schultz, Theodore, "Education as a source of economic development," in
Conference on economic and social development in Latin America, sponsored by
UNESCO / ECLAC, OAS, ILO, FAO, Santiago de Chile, March 5-19, 1962.

"The financial value of education, UTEHA, Mexico, 1968.
"Rostow, W., The Stages of Economic Growth, FCE, Mexico, 1961.
-Wolfe, Marshal, "Styles of development and education", in CEPAL Review, Vol. 21

December, ECLAC Santiago, 1983.

-Yotopoulos, Pan and Jeffrey Nugennt, Research on economic development, FCE,
Mexico, 1981.


2 1.This research is part of the research line "concept in education training, coordinated
by Dr. Josefina Granja.

2. For purposes of this paper, two basic theoretical and methodological concepts in the analysis are:
discursive formation and displacement. The first finds its clearest expression in the work of Foucault as
this refers to the idea of field in which different forms of expression displayed that intersect
permanently, is the conceptual framework that allows describing the formation of objects (about what
speech), the modalities set (institutional level where the speech occurs and position of
subjects produce), the very formation of notions and concepts (rules governing the emergence and
transformation in the ways of describing and interpreting the objects), and the strategy field (analysis
continuity and change in the ways of producing knowledge.) The notion of "displacement has an idea
longer, since it comes from psychoanalysis and in the field of social sciences, policy analysis and returns
epistemological discourse (in turn). As such it refers us to the idea of movement, back and forth that within
a process of emergence of concepts explains the transition that is experiencing a notion, a concept, a
category that can acquire new meanings in a given time, and bring different meanings to those
I knew at an earlier stage, involves the ideas of sedimentation, overfishing, coexistence, etcetera.
3. The first as a contributor to the reproduction of the labor force in the second as a tool for
domination, the third providing the basis for the understanding and acceptance of the kind of society and its history

and its contribution to the mechanisms of the formation of personality, which could not be reduced to a simple
ideological socialization or acceptance of authority (Labarca, 1980, p. 18)

4. ECLAC, Productive Transformation with Equity: the priority of Latin America and the Caribbean in the years
nineties, UN / ECLAC, Santiago, 1990.
5. ECLAC / UNESCO, Education and Knowledge: axis transformation with equity,
ECLAC / UNESCO, Santiago, 1992.
6. The documents of the period are the role to be assumed by the State under the new system
international economic one example is posed by materials ECLAC / UNESCO to emphasize
fact that to lead this new phase of development of Latin American and Caribbean will need a type of
State which is not a precedent. "It must support the business base that emerged during the previous period
to fully exercise its responsibilities in the productive sector and promote the development of
capabilities needed to achieve international standards of competitiveness, seek greater equity (function
balancing the state) and encourage environmental sustainability ", ECLAC / UNESCO, Education and Knowledge:
pillars of changing production patterns with equity, ECLAC / UNESCO, Santiago, 1992, pp. 34-35.
7. Equity is not a new term in the discourse of ECLAC, which is new is the meaning and role is
to play within the new discursive formation, as it now takes on new meanings, reflected this in a
more comprehensive concept of modern as Citizenship, highly consistent with the approaches on democracy
8. This does not mean that in the previous model that prevailed not over-education, however the
new context is to influence the way in which to assess the educational and particularly the knowledge and
how they will respond in accordance with the intentions outlined in the proposal.
9. Since the investigation is in its infancy and is soon corresponding analysis
ECLAC's proposal "Education and knowledge: Basic pillars of changing production patterns with equity", the notion
equity will not be dealt with in this paper.
10. I refer to the World Declaration on Education for All (1990), Jomtien, Thailand, the document "
Treasure Within "produced by the Delors Commission (UNESCO) ECLAC and UNESCO documents
above, and the document "Priorities and strategies for education" World Bank



Not Louis


Since the eighteenth century, at least, contradict each other two
pedagogical perspectives. In one they want to teach, introduce, educate. It teaches a
relating to children, ie given the situation between two objects: the material and
child from outside the student withdraws its status as a child, you are directed, he
models and was equipped. This is the old argument has always enjoyed supporters
Despite the criticism and the alternatives that has been subjected. The antithesis is required
after Rousseau, which state that the student is in itself means
to achieve their own development, especially in the intellectual and moral, and that any
action involved in it from the outside will only deform or hinder.

And because of that history seems to justify it, establishing the opposition between
ancient methods and modern methods, although those are as current as
them. At other times the traditional is what is rejected in the name of the new,
as if the traditional and outdated terms were synonyms or as if with the passage
the years, the novelty does not become a tradition. Other times, in short, suggested
and appearances and that Rousseau and teachers who have inspired him
place the action at the source of all knowledge, is classified as assets to the
methods they advocate, and then to facilitate the classification of oppositions
says to the other methods the child, the student is not active ... and denouncing the
while the multiplicity of tasks that require you to run with such methods.

The problem

In this game of contrasts confrontation is diverted into the
exclusivism and pedagogical reform bogged down in dogma.

More than with opposition, after more than a century of conflict, our
he needs time synthesis. No, of course, these commitments do not eclectic
solve anything but genuine synthesis covering the two opposing views and that the

while arising from such opposition, surpassing either end.
Undertake such work of synthesis has allowed us, in this work, outlining a
progressive pedagogy: we have first searched in the comparison of education
traditional with the new education (1) and second in the critique of
nondirective pedagogy, (2) also constitutes an indispensable theory
educational renewal. (3) and any reflection about the methods, more or less
explicitly, is a response to this requirement if at least summary
termination of conflict. As the diversity of approaches allows for greater
deepening of the problems, we decided to make a further contribution to
this research from the analysis focused on pedagogy of knowledge -
focusing on her and not limited to it. Indeed, it is clear that we could not lose
views or unity of the person, nor the requirements of synthesis that occurs during
whole of the person, whose importance, (4) at least theoretically,
pedagogy has long acknowledged. This project brings us to expose
contrast between the two points of view we have presented to the top.

In the first of these points of view knowledge is organized from the outside and
education is a kind of grafting, the student, outside productions
for the training. We talk here, that we forgive the neologism-de
heteroestructuración. As opposed to these methods is autoestruturación,
to the extent that the student himself is the artisan of their own construction.

Therefore not all pedagogical intervention is necessarily a
action brought in the student, and hence the fundamental educational concepts
change of definition. Pedagogy and art is not exercised by the driver of children
and education is no longer, either, an act which is to lead the individual out
of their current situation to improve. Define education by the idea
transformation with certain purposes. The education of an individual is
implementation of appropriate means to transform (5) or to allow
transform (6) in the sense that define the general objectives (goals) that
assigned to the educational process. This put into play or practice determines certain
teaching situations.

Considered an art for a long time, now aspires to a teaching
scientific status and tends to occur as the science of learning methods.
In turn, these methods are defined as the organization of media through
a progression towards the goals assigned to it: all, way, goal, towards. The
method is the dynamic way that takes the educational situation in the course of
use made of this situation.

Ultimately, the education of an individual is oriented processing
to specific purposes and obtained through the exploitation of situations

"The teaching methods define the process by which they are organized and
develop educational situations.

"Pedagogy is the methodology of education. constitutes a problem
of means and ends, and in this issue examines the educational situations,
select and then organizes and ensures their situational use.

This return to basic definitions can specify the perspective
which is going to develop our critical review of methods
heteroestructuración or self-structuring of knowledge: is the analysis of
situations involving both kinds of methods. With the first educator
exerts an action on the student through a field: knowledge
formed, divided into elements that can be called objects, which are
instrumental in the formation of the student. The situation that arises is that of a
agent that uses the object as a tool to engage, in a patient action
which aims to form or transform the patient. With the other methods (
autoestructurados) there is essentially but an individual who carries out actions and
is transformed by their actions themselves. It is the education of the individual by
own action and it is also involved in the objects that are used for education
student, but the use of such objects is not the same.

In the first case who knows who teaches unknown, this implies that first
object of knowledge has been assimilated by the agent, to the point of become one with
this subject (who teaches math is more or less mathematical, which teaches
History is more or less a historian, and so on. ) The result is important because the
pedagogical situation is then the object which determines essentially the
action exerted by the agent in the patient. Heteroestructuración methods are
characterized by the primacy of the object. In the other methods (those
self-structuring), on the contrary, the determining factor of the action the student and
the object is subject to their initiatives. In the latter dominates the primacy of the subject.

However, when we refer to data from contemporary psychology,
especially the work of the Geneva school, we think that the factors
determining the acquisition of knowledge are neither only in the object or
only in the subject, not strictly linked with the preponderance of this or that
but subject-object interaction and this interaction and it is interestructuración
look beyond the short to allow the counter just
evoke. That this should be defined at the outset of our analysis notions


The subject is the individual but the individual may be subject teaching or not
be so. It is when is a center of initiative for action, although this
consists only of a mere awareness of their own states or circumstances.
The notion of subject is so confused with that of the individual who gives his
time limits and space, with the unit and that such limits circuscriben
their existence in particular relations with the universe that encompasses. In turn, the
subject function gives the individual a sense of permanence through
changes that affect them through such a stay and in it, the adult, regardless
regardless of age, feels it, as a subject, it was as a child.

Although they have changed the determinants and the media, the center of
initiatives and awareness of states and circumstances remains the
itself. This resistance to the vagaries of the stay, the subject does not function
is other than that which establishes and guarantees our identity.

The subject is a source of action and the object is the action that
carries on. The individual is the object when it is, in turn, place of action in the
exercised. The subject is the self (July) (in the nominative case) and the object is to me, or my of
individual. Both my self and are made of our states and our actions
but the self is the place: the present is in the perspective of the future lie
that integrates me, thus marking the end of the past always provisional. The
I can weigh in determining the efforts of myself, but I myself come from
as it is I who becomes aware of me.

From a constitution to which change more or less, the traces
leave events are defining the individual's history, personality
performs its unity, uniqueness and continuity to be the same and others.
Be built steadily through the changes that affect the individual,
consciously or unconsciously to him, most of these changes depend on
establishing relations between the self and the world, other changes arise
internal changes that produce the permanence or interactions between these
transformations and the relationships being undertaken with the outside world.

The ego, that is the subject, takes the initiative of these relationships and chairs its
integration into me. This is true for the universe of things and for one
people. According to the excellent definition of I. Meyerson "what we now call the
person is the man among men, the man himself. " From which it
infer that the subject is invested with two sets of symmetric functions:
separation and closure to meet the demands of individuation, openness and
merger to meet the customization. For if the subject is
essentially a "me" from a "we" (9) and feel, even before knowing it
can not be realized in a "we" all testifies ontogenesis
is true.

Personality is a structure in the universe within a structured,
that is defined as an internal balance among its components (physiology,
morphological, cognitive, affective, conative and social) and as a balance
characteristic external changes provided with the environment in which it is
inserted. But it is a living structure and the same thing as breaking this balance
constantly changes that arise in the individual or the environment that
surrounds. Conservation depends on the subject or adjustment of these balances. In
Several cases have been preserved through spontaneous self-regulation and the subject or
even become aware of the process, but certain exceptions to this breakdown
spontaneous self-regulation and the subject must organize the behaviors necessary to
restore balances that have been broken. (10)

The object has been defined as the place in the course of action
determined, which exercises the subject of this action. Thus the term object
applies to all real-world elements taken in isolation or in interaction,
joint understood (apprehended) as such. But the very essence of man is
representative development of intelligence and the power conferred upon this development
reproduce the concrete universe through a symbolic universe, which allows
substitute for real action activities but structurally identical to
made in the world of symbols and therefore subject to less onerous and
more flexible. The term object is applied so extensively to all content
the symbolic universe: both purely mental representations as to the
signs or symbols that designate them.

The term can be applied to living beings is the place where
action exerted on them, therefore, object applies to people and the
relationships with each other can treat each other (or others)
as a subject (s) or object (s).

The word order also applies to individuals or groups for
institutions. Defined in this way can also be applied to values, even models
solidified by someone or behaviors symbolically represented in
extent to which these values and behavior patterns can be places of
action (critical, imitation, etc..) exerted on them.

Be the site of action involves no inertia or inaction, most of the
Sometimes the object reacts to the action of the subject. You can know the status of
simple reactions or responses to the object returns to the subject in the form of a
action of which he himself is the source. The object may play the role of
reflector and return its activity towards its origin. Finally, it is possible that the action of
object is not directed towards the subject that gives rise to the subject but take it in
consideration and integrated into the organization of their further actions. When the
subject exerts action on the object before becoming, in turn, in place of a
action that the object exerts on it, no interaction of subject and object.

When the action tends to give a structure in order to modify
that of which is provided or rebuilt on another level (for example, the
physical reality to the mental representation), the action is called
structure. The interaction between A and B becomes interestructuración when

(A) acts in the structure of (B) and (B) in the structure of (A), if only one or
otherwise to play without changing anything, which might be called
identical structure.
The couple of assimilation-accommodation found in the analysis
Piaget offers a fine example of interestructuración. In the assimilation of the subject
try and grasp the object in a structure consistent with the patterns that
provides what is ultimately a form of mental structuring the object.
But as this has its own characteristics with respect to the characteristics on
who have organized the actions producing the patterns obtained, the object
requires schemes to reorganize to adapt to it, so we say

the object structure to the subject. For now we will limit ourselves to this illustration of
subject-object relations that we need and solidified by the next action.

The method

Above we alluded to the pretensions of being scientific and pedagogical
history of science teaches us the value of the experimental method to achieve this,
this method is the one that has inspired our work. As is well known method
is defined by the experimental verification of a hypothesis, that this is submitted to
control of the facts, hence the need to define now our assumptions and
control procedures we have adopted.

Our hypotheses are:

1. Some methods, in various ways, are part of a perspective
of heteroestructuración the student, the latter as from that
know or be cognosciente. This leads on to the student as a
object and subject the state of education to the primacy of the object
will be released. Its effectiveness is compromised with this
2. Other methods,
also various forms, are part of a
self-structuring of the student perspective as an entity before it.
This leads on to the student as an individual and submit
educational situation of the primacy of the subject. Its effectiveness is
committed to this task.
3. These two sets of methods are in contrast irreducible.
4. You can define a method of education based on cognitive
interestructuración the subject called to know, in order to be
proposed for this purpose.
5. It may be noted that this method (interestructuración) hits:
"The integration of the advantages of each of the preceding groups
"The elimination of their shortcomings
"Overcoming their opposition.

The difficulty lies less in the formulation of the hypothesis that in the
organization to verify the appropriate task. A common task
experimental education is to vary the conditions under which
children acquire this or that old notion or dominate a particular activity.
The assessment applies to executions observed in The assignment allows
choose between the conditions that have been changed or discredit the hypothesis
who have presided over this or that organization, or generalize all
reservations that are desired the conclusions drawn in the form of law. This
method has yielded excellent results and has allowed us to determine a large number
activities step by step, but not enough to meet all of the
educational needs.

Indeed, the notions and activities should not be considered only from the
acquisition perspective on time that meets the demands of school
immediate. Any acquisition of knowledge is part of the perspective
one to become something more. Reading schemes prepared from the course
original spelling patterns to be taught later, and a scheme as
simple as iteration or repetition of the unit in the natural sequence of
integers, organized between four and six years old, is
the basis for mastering the reasoning by recurrence. (11) More
Generally, any acquisition of knowledge takes its true value
only their integration into the total personality and when put into work
in behaviors that give it meaning. In this domain the penalty
efficiency is always long term and if involved (often years
after applying the process) have affected so many intervening variables or
eddy becomes impossible any analysis of the linkages between
assumptions and established effects.

Moreover, even assuming that this analysis would be verifiable, any attempt
apply to new generations of students would raise other problems and
should refer to other variables linked to any changes
involved in the overall average.

This investigation covers three types of methods applicable to all
all disciplines and levels of education. For evaluation
correct each of these types of methodology, in terms of efficiency,
would have to study its effects on a representative group of the population,
study that would total about 150 individuals. But the various forms
it can make each model in practice (for example,
self-structuring, according Decroly Cousinet, Dewey, etc.) pose the
problem of distinguishing aspects which would require comparisons
intragroup or intergroup. Therefore these are not, on the other hand,
unique differential aspects. There are, at least, influence the rate of
development (IQ, IQ) and the influence of social class to which
part, the importance of establishing in other domains. For this
actual need much higher than those considered in this first

Add to all this is well known disadvantages brought about by any
longitudinal approach. It is not possible to use cross-sections or studies
horizontal, for the purposes of any method of education are cumulative and
the "snapshots" that consist of these cuts could not give a full account of
the corresponding evolution. Nor is it possible, and for the same reason,
use split a longitudinal section of a whole series of cuts in
longitudinal part, which would be reset. If we proceed by example
juxtaposing four partial longitudinal studies of three years, covering
schooling encompassing four to sixteen years of age,
operate as if the results for each of these phases
not integrated into the next phase.

It is clear that if the method used has a particular efficiency, the level of
starting point of phase IV (thirteen) is not the same as that
the student has benefited from it or did not achieve this, the term
stage III, stage II and III, or stage I, II and III. There is only a
way to avoid this problem: using a longitudinal study of twelve

In view of the effects of "wild ass's skin," to keep a hundred
individuals until the end of the experiment, we should start with a group of
three or four times, ie classes with a dozen preserved
while at the school and that would cover from nursery school or garden
children and primary and secondary teaching until the second year of
High School: twelve years. This extension must be added the chronological
instability of the institutions with the changes of teachers and professors,
structures, different pedagogical programs and the difficulty of
maintain identical operating conditions of students in each class and
in each discipline.

We must also take into account the difficulties that would come to power even step
experienced in a long space of time, and to that extent, a
highly centralized system like ours, governed by institutions to be
flexible are less constructive. All transformation test
teaching appears as the solution of a conflict between the established order
and aspirations from fulfilling it. But the question put
the established order is not accepted unanimously and can therefore
difficult if not impossible to place teachers at risk of conflict with
their superiors or with families or even themselves. Y
though there was no obstacle in this plane, it is still necessary
convince teachers of the wisdom of the experiment the value or at
less safe than the method applied and all would be trained
in the new practices, which would prolong indefinitely the duration of
observation (12).

Finally, it is well known that the results of an experiment conducted by
among the teachers are always relative since they depend on the personality
of each other and not only on their degree of confidence or commitment to the system
you want to try, also depend on his temperament, character and way of
react to situations and his style of bringing relations
interpersonal, and so on.

Anyone who claims the experimental guarantee could not be achieved with a
approximation. We often talk in the media and even official,
educational experiments, experimental trial and error, to act by trial and error or
innovations and controlled most of the time you do is sacrifice
sake of what is considered the taste or fashion of the day. What is
then? In the best of a simple collection, more or less

methodical, objective data obtained in situations more or less
most often defined and poorly controlled.

Is this a mere empiricism and justification peremptorily cheap
of the findings obtained, often inspired by dogmatism
fundamental. Certainly it is better to renounce the experimental method
adulterated in this way. We have tried not doing so, or
deprive us of the reference to the facts. Unable to obtain these facts of
observation of students working by following two methods
Pedagogically, we have sought above all in the data provided by psychology

For scenario 1, 2 and 3, a content analysis of the systems
heteroestructuración advocate or cognitive self-structuring
will bring to light the psychological processes that these types of
structuring into action and, possibly, the underlying ideology. These
constituents of the system is confronted with psychological observations
taken from current practice, the work of psychology and sociology
scientific or relate to theories that underlie this work.

As for scenario 4 and 5, the system currently being developed by
Therefore instead of proceeding analytically studied by synthesis. In
To begin with we shall examine the facts he has gathered the
psychology laboratory in the field of cognitive development and demonstrate
the existence of a process interestructuración between knower and
known object. In a second time, and without losing sight of the facts he has
registered psychology, in addition to refer to a clarification
epistemological we will examine the possibilities for implementing
interestructuración process to the apprehension of the cognitive content
proposed by the school. A third time will be devoted to our discussion
adjust the model in the perspective of an orderly education, in terms of
mental growth process, ie, an evolutionary approach. We hope
thus overcome two dangers: the first is to expose
abruptly a doctrine based on the beliefs or ideology
passion-driven determinants, the second would be the worst defense
the first is to establish a psychological-deductive pedagogy
appropriate deductions drawn from psychology (13). Instead, it is the
references which we have provided the basis and hope to come and that
according to G. Mialaret, we can call a true psychology (14).

The domain explored

It is divided into three parts, devoted the first two, and systems analysis
pedagogical theory developed in the modern era (nineteenth and twentieth centuries), the
third, to study the prospects for implementing processes
interestructuración teaching some subjects, treated in a
development perspective.

The systems studied in the first part is divided into two groups:
first (A) comprises those who tend to form or transform the student, and
for this favor a heteroestructuración for their knowledge put into
practice is based on the predominant action of an external agent and the
primacy of the object being studied. The second (B) comprises those who tend to
help students form or advocating for it to become a
self-structuring of their knowledge, they rely on their own action
student and the primacy of the subject.

A. Traditional methods are divided in turn into two groups:
A 1 a. The first includes methods based on the tradition alive, ie the
master transmission of knowledge. It is a widespread and rarely
A 1 b. The second encompasses the methods based on Modelling of action
contents of the established tradition, is education through models. Resorts to
transmission of content in the system of Durkheim and active reproduction
Alain systems and Chateau.
A 2. Coercive methods fall between those based in the transmission of
a knowledge from outside and those who rely on their development through
own action. Education is built upon the learning processes that require
student activity, but this activity is driven from outside by a teacher
acting directly (through the maieutics) or through an appropriate
(Collection of sheets, workbook, computer, etc.) Behind which "hides" the
pedagogue. They have been called to mean coercive methods that depend on two
coordinated actions in which one determines the development of the other (15).
Inspired primarily behaviorism or reflexology Watsonian Russian
ods can be classified according to their mode and degree of systematization. By
Therefore, coercive methods are:

A 2 a. The first applications, and Dottrens Washburne.
A 2 b. The systematization behaviorist Skinner.
A 2 c. Cybernetic point of view, with Crowder and Landa.

B. Self-structuring methods, called active methods, are
true methods of discovery or invention (16). A (B 1) are
primarily oriented towards discovery by observing others
(B 2) are more oriented to the invention by experience
adopted, if we did not fear too narrow interpretations,
could talk about methods of acquisition in respect of the first and
production for the latter, or rather still, methods
printing and methods of expression, respectively. But then
referring to these systems, some consider the action of a subject
individual (a) and the other action of a collective subject (b), without both
dichotomies match term by term. By intertwining these two
criteria, we obtain the following methodological types:

B 1 a. The discovery by observation characterizes individual method
Madame Montessori.
B 1 b. The discovery by observing a group characterized the method of R.

In this deal O. Decroly occupies an intermediate position, in so far as it
alternate individual work with the cooperative activities.

B 2 a. The invention from the individual experience of the world is adapting to
at the base of Claparede systems and Dewey. The first is characterized by
theory of intellectual functioning and the role attributed to gambling in
acquisition of knowledge, the second by the difficulties of puerocentrismo, by
problems of individualism that is inherent ambiguities and
a solution that attempts to reconcile this with the demands unalloyed individualism
of socialization.

B 2 b. The invention by the collective experience of adaptation to the world
Freinet characterizes the system, based on the theory of collective experimental trial
within the framework of cooperation and in view of her. The goal of socialization is
central to this teacher and the system is better for the solutions to the problem
posed for the students meeting the obligations or restrictions on development
cognitive with the requirement of freedom. But Freinet Announces Lobrot, for whom
goal of socialization is higher than the target cognitive, to the point of relegating the latter to
a secondary level, which might go so far as to exclude it. For this reason, we
considered in our analysis these two systems.

Every choice is more or less arbitrary and not just discussed
escapes this objection. Perhaps the reader think that our choice gives a
very limited to systems that have proliferated after the Second War
World and is designated as the non-directive teaching methods. True
that these systems only have we dealt with the object of our Lobrot
study. Here's why: the two essential goals of the renewal movement
auoestructuración pedagogical student advocate, consist, one in
improve the acquisition of knowledge in the light of the teachings of
a psychology that has become scientific, the other is to release the child until then
kept in subjection by traditional educational methods. In a first
time, the main objective of the new systems is the cognitive and
quest for freedom by the student is at the level of the conditions
to improve the achievement of cognitive objectives. However, for
Some teachers (Neill, educators, Hamburg, etc.) freedom is from the
the primary purpose principle and cognitive development is secondary in relation to
precedent, R. Cousinet is, in France, best known representative of this

For reasons easy to understand and in which greater detail later,
This trend has become mainstream in a refreshing streams of
contemporary pedagogy, and in the investigations that characterize, pedagogy

contemporary, and in the investigations that characterize the pedagogy of
knowledge is relegated to the background. Here is the reason for us busy
only the most radical of such systems and have allocated more space systems
older, for the simple reason that attach primary importance to
the acquisition of knowledge (17). Lobrot considers the acquisition of knowledge a
target if not insignificant, at least very secondary, which seems excessive
political passion. But what is a desperate attempt to overcome a contradiction
around its own internal libertarian project on acquisition of knowledge? Is this
a hypothesis to be considered and therefore, no doubt, we have preserved
our study Lobrot system as a typical representative of the theories
nondirective teaching.

The third part of the course of our investigation was extended to the domains
of psychology and educational psychology. In the first we have sought the facts
interestructuración reveals the subject and object, linked to the development of
subjective process, through the role of the self and the development of a process
objectification through the construction of knowledge.

In the second of these domains, we have carefully analyzed the facts
of psychology and epistemology, with respect to mathematics and
language learning. With the first, the structures of the object are
particularly sharp, so it is much tougher action exerted by the object
the subject. On language, language is a structured and cultural production
use fear it gives to the individual structuring. The observation
psychological demonstrates, however, that linguistic structures are reconstructed
by the individual whenever used, the early learning or early, long
spontaneous learning more didactic, shows the reality and importance of
interestructuración between the speaking subject and the object that is the language
is spoken. This relationship suggests a pedagogical model for teaching the language
maternal as well as other pedagogical model for teaching languages
foreign, dead or alive. We have developed a more detailed model for
the model language for other languages. We then analyzed
the generalization of the process conditions to the teaching of disciplines,
ranked in order of decreasing structure: experimental sciences (about
particularly physics), science of classification (especially natural sciences), history and
geography. The set includes the main categories of knowledge:
significant, beings of reason, root causes, concrete appearances, time spent,
livelihoods. The problems regarding the dynamics of cognitive activity is
addressed in the last chapter, while this activity is relocated in
unique perspective that could make sense: the prospect not only of becoming,
but the improvement by which the subject resumes its essential function
projecting into the future.

1.G. Snyders, progressiste Pedagogy.
2.G. Snyders, Ou vont pedagogies are non-directives?
3.A. Claussen, Philosophie, méthodologie et d'un enseignement work make sense
4.Cf. R. Hubert, Traité of General Pedagogy.
5.Es what we have called heteroestructuración.
6.Es the case when adopting the self-structuring.
7.Que can become us, you, you, he or she, they or them.
8.Problemes of the person, Introduction, p. 8
9. It is the initial annual.
10.La pathology would have much to teach us about personality disorders that leads to a deficit in
self-regulatory mechanisms or the balancing action of the subject itself.
P. 11.Cf Greco, JB Grize, S. Papert and J. Piaget, Problemes de la construction du name.
12.The experimenter has no right to enter variables whose action would be slow (a pedagogical system) or
not to experiment on man when his experiment could lead to serious or irreversible disorders,
physiological or psychological. "The first proposition summarizes the reasons that have made us give up
experimentation, and the second suggests the reluctance that such an undertaking could result.
13.Cf. J Piaget, Psychologie et pédagogie, pp 31-43.
14.Sobre the different meanings of the word, psychology, cf. J Simon, experimental pedagogy, p. 8
15.Además of the combination of two actions, the term coercive means the determination of one of them by
another: coercion means "action to force to do or not do it." Littré, I. p. 977
16.Que the "your student" knows nothing because what you said but because he understands himself;
not learn science, the invented. " JJ Rousseau, Emile or education, III, 9
17.Es also true that after having studied the systems that attribute primacy to relations
interpersonal type advocated R. Rogers, we decided to simplify and remove them from our field
analysis, therapeutic inspiration and guidance, not clarify at all the problems posed by the process
acquisition of knowledge.


César Coll (1)
Department of Developmental Psychology and Differential
Area of Educational Psychology. University of Barcelona
International Meeting of Psychological Science.
Alicante, February 1981.


Education is a complex phenomenon with multiple facets and
compresnión implications which also requires a multiple approach:
ideological, sociological, historical, economic, philosophical ... and also psychological.
It is not, of course, to postulate that some components of the process
education, by their very nature, appeal to a particular type of analysis,
while others to be different in nature, require an analysis
completely different and disconnected the old one. The educational activity must be
considered as a whole through the coordinated implementation of instruments
provided theoretical and methodological perspectives each
mentioned. The initial consideration will serve to frame briefly
psycho-analysis objectives, their needs and constraints as well as
links with other analysis, equally necessary, the phenomenon

Any action required education includes a reference to a process
adquicisión of knowledge, meaning "knowledge" both the contents
unique to different areas of knowledge such as rules, values,
attitudes and interests conveyed by the educational system. The child learns to read and
write and learn to react in a particular way before
authority or learning to relate to others. To be more accurate,
what one learns while the other, ie how the child
learn to read and write is inseparable from the way he learns to
react to the authority or relate to others. But in the act
education not only gives a learning process, if so, would
difficult, if not unnecessary to differentiate the learning process or
development process. Appears also a deliberate policy, which can
materialize in many different ways, to influence or intervene on the process
student learning, this will translate into a series of decisions
what the student has to learn and what is considered the best
way to learn. In other words, learning is not only desirable,
education but also a deliberate policy to influence the
learning. Psycho-analysis focuses attention on precisely
this double process of teaching and learning in their nature and characteristics,

the factors that facilitate, hinder or what make it impossible, in
direction it takes and the referents.

So, if it is true that any pedagogical approach is a
stance on how to develop teaching-learning process,
the fact remains that only in rare cases this option is
consciously and clearly. The explicitness of the criteria not
educational psychology, with the confusion that often accompanies this omission is the
responsible for the enormous difficulties that we experience today when
try to justify the choice of an educational alternative based on
process of teaching and learning. The difficulty is even greater in
educational levels, including kindergarten, rather than escaping to the other
official teaching guidelines, and that it therefore offer greater
action camp innovative educational proposals.

We will make three brief observations in order to avoid an interpretation
that is not in our mind. First, emphasize the process
teaching-learning as an object of study of psycho-analysis not
prejudice at all what we have learned, or how to learn, let
alone how they are involved (or how and why nothing was done) to achieve
learning. Accepting this conception of psycho-analysis is
only accept that any educational process aims at achieving a
learning and that to achieve this, we act accordingly. Second
Instead it assumes that psycho-analysis can not ignore any
factors that affect the teaching-learning process, factors
affective and cognitive factors are important, but equally important is the motivational

or interpersonal (2). Third, this focus on process
teaching-learning does not just exclude consideration of other aspects
important educational phenomena-such as its role
reproduction of social order, but is closely linked to
themselves. For example, defends a conception as "inclusive" or
"Liberating" of education (Girardi, 1977), the teaching-learning process
take very different directions and their analysis is carried out under
different perspectives.
In short, as we define the objective fact that the task
Counselling does not mean defend a technocratic and aseptic
of psychological intervention in the field of education. The time when
psychologists and psychology aimed to resolve definitively and unequivocally "the
problem "of education through a procedure strictly deductive
from their field of knowledge from the classroom and the inert reaction
illusion. And yet, this waiver of psychology attributed a function
legislation and educational practice, simultaneously with a fair valuation
instrument that provides for understanding the process
teaching and learning have been printed in a dramatic boost to the development of
Psychology, which appears today as an important potential source of

essential knowledge for analysis and planning processes

In this context, the ultimate goal of the work presented is
find meaningful and discriminative indicators of teaching-learning process
or rather the different ways of conceiving and bringing to
end. The starting point of reflection is the concept of activity and
impact on the process, both as regards the student activity
as the teacher. This election is not free: perspective
is impossible to find a psychological explanation of learning in either
otherwise give no special importance to the activity of the subject
learn, from a strictly educational, the importance
attributed to the activity the student is such that this term has been and is used
to define an alternative active education Vesus traditional education
Implicit: not active!. Psycho-analysis of the concept of activity
will discuss in the following pages shows the lack of transparency
Alternatively referred to, while placing the discussion, not about the
presence or absence of the activity, but some members of the process
teaching and learning, ie student and teacher. Categorization
interactivity on which this analysis leads in turn will help us in
third of the exhibition, to understand better two proposals
made for the purpose of teaching early childhood education, level
serves educational framework for all the work. In paragraph
four will post a first approximation to the relevant dimensions
for a detailed analysis of the Inter-activity and, in conclusion,
will examine some perspectives and projects that enables the concept of

Student activity to the inter-activity teacher / student

It is well known that genetic psychology attaches import
the primary activity of the subject in the acquisition process
knowledge and cognitive development in general, thereby reinforcing the
pedagogies that consider the student's activity as a fundamental aspect
the teaching-learning process. It is therefore not surprising that, when you
Some years we addressed the task of specifying the guidelines for the
introduction to experimental science in elementary school (Coll, 1978) to
From a genetic conception of development, even if we are doomed to
deepen the concept of activity. We said at the time that, although
it is true that so-called active schools "insist on the importance of
activity, the "traditional schools" have never advocated the passivity of
student in both cases, at least to a declaration of intent, it
seeks active participation in learning and try to avoid
passivity. So we came to the conclusion that we can distinguish
different way a student can be "active" in the process of
teaching and learning (op. cit. pp 19-23.

a) You can ask the student who is active in the sense of providing care and
mentally follow verbal or motor activity of the master so
similar to what you do at this precise moment the reader tries to follow
the thread of our discourse and understanding.

b) But you can also ask the student who is active in the sense
managing and implementing the instructions that tells you the

For example, the teacher explains how to make a statement and the student must
indicates what the teacher and especially as it indicates.

c) A third type of activity, which has great similarities with the previous
is that which consists in provoking the onset of certain student
behaviors that are systematically reinforced by the following teacher
previously established plan, is the type of activity that appears,
example, in programmed instruction.

d) Finally, one way to be active is to accept a goal, which
origin can be found or not in the actual student and organize
activity in order to achieve it. This activity is probably the closest
the process of acquiring knowledge and intellectual development has been
highlighted by genetic psychology.

While the above characterization is a step forward from the typical-and
topical-alternative in terms of "passive-active student student, work
would later show no appeal is far from satisfactory when
making as an instrument of psycho-analysis. Indeed, the interesting
E. Research Bassedas and I. Solé (1979) shows, on the one hand,
difficulties involved in the search for empirical indicators directly
Based on this classification and, secondly, the need not to dissociate the activity of
student teacher activity. If the concept of activity has to be
an important element of psycho-analysis and we believe this is the
case, will be necessary to carry out an analysis of underlying dimensions
simultaneously this concept, consider student activity and
teacher's activity as a whole closely related. In other
Thus, in a pedagogic perspective the analysis of interactivity
moves the simple analysis of pupil activity.

Guided by these considerations and characterization before
exposed, we arrived recently, along with colleagues from the Group
Psychopedagogical Research (1), a twofold categorization of the activity
Student and teacher which is summarized below (Bassedas, Coll and Solé,

Student Activity

We will start with a characterization of different types of activity
which often require the student. First, you can ask

concentrate their efforts on carefully follow verbal or motor activity of
educator, exactly as if attending the performance of a
theater, the projection of a film, a conference or a lecture.
This monitoring activity is precisely what characterizes education
lecture or exhibition. The absence of a visible motor activity for
observer has led sometimes to identify wrongly activity
monitoring as an activity or even no passivity. It would be false.
The reader has experienced for himself on many occasions the
mentation necessary to "follow" a speech or text, will have been
Renewed efforts are needed to achieve "continue" what really
are watching or listening. Finally, neither will be those strange
situations in which people will have to watch or listen to without, lacking
interest, motivation or instruments of understanding, has got to see u
hear. The monitoring activity is characteristic of expository teaching and
it, not by the student require an externalized activity has been
often listed as not active.

The fundamental idea behind this type of activity is that the
student, made contact with the knowledge that is exposed, will
permeated by it. The only difficulties to overcome include it in
this viewpoint, in ensuring that the student is aware and ensuring a presentation as
accurately as possible. The monitoring activity is in fact one of the
most challenging activities that may require the student. Our own
Experience shows that on numerous occasions the need for a
monitoring activity leads simply to a false attitude of attention
without any mental counterpart. Certainly this activity can
reach levels of considerable complexity and perfection, but for
this occurs, involves a series of favorable circumstances
rarely occur simultaneously.

But you can also ask the student to be active following
teacher's instructions carefully. This explains what to
do that and above all, how to do it. In executing activity
Student teacher does what he suggests and as directed. Its activity is not
confined to mentally follow the explanations and actions of the educator,
but also have to run by itself a series of actions
respecting a set of indicators more or less accurate.

Enforcement activity often accompanies activity
tracking master the teaching model. An example of this is
classic exercises or duties that accompany the exposure of a subject
by the educator. It is considered in these cases is essential for
acquisition of knowledge outlined above, run by the student
itself a series of actions which are precisely those which will enable
enhance or fix what has been transmitted. When a single execution of
activities is not sufficient to ensure the domain, they are repeated many times
as necessary. It is not difficult to recognize in these proposals theory

psychological accounts of knowledge acquisition by the frequency of
existing partnerships.

But enforcement activity is also characteristic of other models
educational force. We refer specifically to the most
systems that use chips in our schools. Indeed, these records are not
are usually limited to proposing an activity or pose a problem, but
specify in detail what you have to do the student (together with a
stroke ... filled with round and square ... ... review, etc.).. The principle is
that the mere contact with the object of knowledge is not enough to ensure their
acquisition, is also necessary to have effective activity of the student.
However, this activity is controlled and directed from abroad, either
Through a series of verbal slogans of the educator or a series of
instructions written on cards.

A step forward towards greater control of the activity
students from abroad is represented by what I call
modeling activity. While here also attended an activity
execution in the above sense, the emphasis is on the consequences of
this activity. Know something equivalent to behave in a certain
way and all behavior has a purpose. The student, like any
person learns by reading of the consequences of their actions. The
Students must therefore be active and the teacher is responsible, either directly

properly or by a device programmed to call your attention
on the consequences of the activity. The laws of association (contiguity,
similarity, contrast) give way to the law of effect. Proper management
control the conditions that ensure the learning behavior
right. By gradual changes in these conditions in the direction of
desired behavior, you can get to model it completely. There are two
because the tasks to be carried to term: find a way to cause
activity and develop a program of reinforcement to the student
learn the desired behaviors. In this context we can interpret
Skinner's statement (1970) that "teaching is to organize
reinforcement contingencies. "
Yet reported fourth type of activity, sometimes the
student is called to develop during the educational process:
free activity (3).

This expression has given rise to many misunderstandings in the pedagogy of
decades precisely because of the variety of interpretations
psychoeducational lining. We believe however, that it is adequate
for our purposes provided that clear at what
intend to appoint. Call free activity to that activity which
development patterns correspond completely to the initiative of those who
exhibits. It can lead to observable behaviors or limited to one activity
mental unavailable to the observer, in any case, development is not

directed by a series of verbal or written slogans or modeled by a
prior organization of the contingencies of reinforcement.

The educational importance attributed to the free activity at rest, at last
instance, in an interpretation of evolutionary theories from the
perspective of psychological explanations are developed in early
century. Life is defined as a continuous and constant search
body's adaptation to the environment. The adaptation is conceived as a series
constant exchange of organism-environment. These exchanges can
be of a material, such as physical and chemical processes
regulate metabolic processes, may also be of material nature
and this is what happens with psychological processes. The behavior, activity,
thought, have a role in ensuring alignment of the middle person
physical and social. In short, to live is to adapt and action and thought are
adaptive tools that ensure the survival of the individual. More
Moreover, the thought is constructed precisely through and through the
experience of people, understood as an exchange with the environment
functional psychology that collects and develops these ideas at the beginning of the century
(Dewey, 1967, Claparede, 1973), attaches particular importance to
notions of need, interest and action. The need to translate a
temporary mismatch the body must meet to restore
balance. Interest represents a psychological level, the translation of the concept
biological necessity. The crux of this concept lies in step
given to the claim that all necessity, and therefore all interésgenera
appropriate agency efforts to meet them. It's easy
recognize this "law of necessity" and the "law of the interest" of psychology
Claparede functional (1973, p. 47 ff), one of whose consequences
important is that the activity should always respond to a need or
interest of the person. If the activity does not comply with this requirement, hardly
have an adaptive nature and functional value is zero.

In education, this approach has had an impact
important about the movement of educational renewal. As far as
Concerning our purpose, we merely point out the role that
attributed to the student in the educational process: since there is no activity
functional which does not meet a need and an intrinsic interest, only
student may ultimately decide the content, activities and
modalities for implementing these activities. The student must assume
address their own educational process.

The free activity is on the basis of most
pedagogical approaches that we know now known
global education "active." However, do not forget that within
this current proposals coexist very different. Indeed, despite
to share this emphasis on the free activity and personal development
student epistemological and psychological interpretations of the process
acquisition of knowledge varies between extreme positions ranging from

sensationalism characteristic of Montessori Claparede directed scoring and
Piaget's constructivism. Without going into an epistemological analysis we
move away from our goal (4), the diversity of interpretations
Psycho-pedagogical activity of the student is highlighted when
considered simultaneously with the activity of the teacher who advocated these
educational systems. But in order to discuss the methods Inter.actividad
in the teaching-learning process, it seems forced stop
briefly characterize the different types of activity
may be called upon to develop the master.

The activity of the teacher

Correspondingly, the type of work he is called to play the
student, the teacher must structure their own mode of action. Although in
previous point we have dealt primarily with the first aspect has
become clear that the task of the teacher can be seen from angles
very different. At one extreme is the concept of teacher as
Lone organizing teaching-learning process, the teacher teaches
and student learning. Teaching here means several things: First,
postulated that the teacher has the knowledge, it is also postulated that
should engage the student who lacks this knowledge;
since this is so, it is possible to leave students with the initiative than
want to learn and much less about how you should learn. By definition,
Students "do not know what he wants," can not know, since unknown
full content of education; by definition, too, the teacher knows
and knows what he ought to know the student, as he has an overview
knowledge and can therefore be determined at any time what is more
adequate. The teacher therefore has the responsibility not only to choose
content (in practice responsibility is diminished or total
part of the curriculum and programs), but also
appropriate organizations to ensure a correct transmission.

Within this general conception of the master organizer
knowledge are important differences concerning the way as
transmission to the student seeks. Although it is difficult to find in state
totally pure distinguish three modes of transmission
knowledge that correspond to several others in clearly
differentiated conception of the teaching-learning process. First
instead, cite the most widespread method of transmission that is, without a
doubt, the exposure, the master organizer exhibitor chooses the content,
organizes, and structure and exposes the student, who is invited to assimilate
through what we call a follow-up. The explanatory
organized set of knowledge is extremely complex task
can be done in various ways and that can lead to results
mixed. The combination of a follow-up of the student and a
conception of the master organizer features exhibitors type teaching
exhibition (claswes lectures, conferences, etc.).

But organized knowledge transfer can be attempted by
other means, for example by careful planning of activities and
exercise to be carried by the student. The teacher chooses the content,
organizes the structure, the plasma in exercises and activities and monitors
carefully implemented. The implementation of student activity is typically from
up with this conception of the master-controller organizer, the presence
both instruments simultaneously characterizes both the series of exercises and practices
used in support of expository teaching, as a considerable part
of existing records systems and teaching approaches have
emphasize the student's activity.

Finally, the task of organizing knowledge can go
accompanied by an attempt to model the behavior of the student. This
concrete behavioral logical analysis of the contents and a
Careful planning of the activities and administration of
reinforcements. The conception of the teacher as an organizer-model is typical of
proposals and programmed instruction and control techniques
behavior modification.

At the opposite end to the design presented above,
find a characterization of the teacher as observer. The initiative
activity in the teaching-learning process corresponds here to
pupil. It is recognized that it has some potential for virtual
learning that make it totally unnecessary and in some formulations
even counterproductive, structuring and planning the contents of
part of the teacher. The student chooses the content, decide the activities and
determines when and how to do it. At its most extreme,
role of the teacher is reduced to a mere observer, facilitator,
available to meet the demands for material or information made
students. This conception of the role and activity of the teacher
found in most so-called non-directive pedagogy and goes
par with what we call free activity of the student.

One way significantly different from the above is that
refer to as an observer-controller. Also here is part of a compliance
total free activity of the student, who is responsible for the lead in
knowledge acquisition process. However, the outlook is
different insofar as it is considered that the fundamental task of
teacher is creating learning situations and ensure a
favorable conditions to ensure that the student gets as far as possible
in the process of assimilation and structuring of the contents of the
teaching. The student must structure itself and no content, no
even the teacher, you can do instead. The importance of
observation of student activity is that interventions
duty teacher from a proper assessment of the true level
structure and total respect for the student's psychological processes.

This observation should provide the elements for understanding
necessary to always decide where to intervene (blocks,
poor or no preparation, depletion of a problem, etc..) and how
intervene (to suggest new activities, to draw attention to aspects
unnoticed, introducing new materials, record information, make
contrasugestiones, etc.). The combination of free activity of the student and
observer-controller activity of the teacher is typical of a whole
pedagogical proposals generally qualify as constructivist
and interactions. (5)

The following table summarizes and displays the double
characterization of the activity of the learner and of the teacher. Intersections
represent other possible conceptions of the inter-activity.
We emphasize that some of these intersections appear as input
privileged in the sense that we can identify with certain
concepts of teaching-learning process. This is not to say
all the other boxes, but involve a degree of
inconsistency can not occur in educational practice. On the other hand,
possible that the inter-activity, as shown in a particular class,
This in turn various types, that is, it seems likely that, at
Throughout a day of schooling in kindergarten, are given successively
different types of inter-activity based on the content addressed.


Student / teacher facilitator model Auditor Controller Speaker
Free Activity

At this point, we should remember our ultimate goal, not
is other than to find and meaningful indicators of the discriminative
different ways of understanding the teaching-learning process and
carry to term. We postulate that the analysis of inter-activity is a
privileged strategy to achieve the objective set, and we proceeded
therefore to develop a typology of different forms of Inter.

activity as set out above. It is now necessary to show that this
initial typology has the required qualities of relevance and
discrimination. To do this, proceed as follows: first
examine two pedagogical approaches for early childhood education
with the help of the typology of the inter-activity, secondly, we
questioned about the dimensions and empirical indicators, from
our initial conceptualization, must be taken into account in arriving at a
analysis of the inter-active in educational practice.

Analysis of two pedagogical approaches

The two proposals we have selected to test the relevance and
the discrimination capacity of the modalities of inter-activity are
preschool education, both have had and continue to have a significant
impact on this level. Its effects have been felt
widely in Catalonia in the Spanish State (6). Of course,
we limit ourselves to review the mode (or modes) of Inter.actividad
both pur and only exceptionally, when required
clarity of exposition, we will address other aspects which, undoubtedly,
would be taken into consideration for a global analysis.

The traditional perspective in early childhood education

Under this designation, including all those proposals
preceding pedagogical renewal movements since the early
century revolve around the so-called "New School." Usually the
traditional pedagogy is understood as opposed to active learning.
We will leave aside this negative characterization and try to
study their main characteristics as regards the activity of
student and teacher. Our focus for this in a historical period
Spanish which was chaired in the educational field, almost exclusively
a traditional type teaching. We refer to the nursery school
the years 1940-1960. We are aware that this era school
is perhaps sufficient to represent the traditional school "typical" because
pedagogical aspects are profoundly conditioned by
certain religious and patriotic ideals. However, as this model
been prevailing for a longer period of time in the Spanish State, with
influences still valid today, we felt it appropriate to analyze it.

The main characteristic of this time in regard to
Teaching is the total neglect and rejection of renewal experiences
teaching is conducted in Spanish territory and more specifically
in Catalonia, in the early decades of the century. Nursery Education
almost nonexistent and not part of compulsory schooling, so
was entirely in the hands of private enterprise. If the rules
kindergarten ministerial talks in recent years, focuses more on reasons such
social (mothers who work outside the home) that its educational aspects.

Focusing on the activity, we will base our analysis on
texts written by two authors (Josefina Alvarez de Canovas, 1966; Aurora
Medina, 1967) which, besides being related to the practice of
early childhood education can be considered as representative theoretical
of teaching Spanish at this time.

Both authors claim that the method to be followed in the nursery Schoolof must be "active." Josefina Alvarez de Canovas (1966) explains the
follows: "The child needs to move almost constantly, because
moving grows and grows is the main purpose of the activity of
little ones "(op. cit. P. 167). Later, the author explains that, beside
this activity the child's physical, it must also give importance to
mental activity: "(...) is difficult to know when the release is the droplet
of spirituality that has to be transformed from purely physical activity
child mental activity first, then morals "(op. cit. P. 167) of citations
we can deduce that when speaking of activity, referred either to
a physical activity movement, or to a mental activity that occurs
when the child "thinks" a suggestion from the teacher. Alongside this
moral mental activity, mental activity are also produced by
material handling educational games, whose main objective
the child is to start the calculation and conceptualization of the properties
of objects (color, shape, size, weight, etc.).

Aurora also Medina (1967) repeatedly insists on
importance of the child's activity. A quote will serve to
specify in what sense, "children's activity should be constant and
permanently employed in such jobs appropriate to their age (...) if
toddler is not engaged in a line and studied activity, look for another by
has no method and no direct action educator. Therefore, the greatest punishment
improvident teacher is inconsistent and undisciplined school,
exhausting, where there is no provision for the orderly activity of children (op. cit.

P. 36) (7)
This paragraph is clear what kind of toddler activity: an activity
conceived, directed, ordered and controlled by the teacher. Activity
spontaneous be avoided, since not only has no educational value, but
that can become negative. The activities planned by the teacher
must take into account the interests of children, A. Medina defined as
matching the work or play that is proposed and its psychological moment
of maturing. " The teacher selects from the children's interests
those that correspond most directly with the aim of the school:
ensure that students acquire as quickly as possible
adult knowledge. So one can not say that in this perspective
early childhood education are not taken into account the interests of the student.
What happens is that selection operates to retain only those
in accordance with the school setting. Thus, for example, attaches great

importance to the child's interest in making buildings, play, etc.. The reason
this difference in children's use of the motivations is that, in the
first case, lead directly to the acquisition of behaviors typical of
adult world, while the second is not.

This distrust of the child's ability to structure itself
activities that lead to becoming an adult involves the presence of a
teacher structured and organized activities that are done in a class.
The activity of the teacher becomes the driving force of education. His
depends on the child's activity has a clear educational significance. With
For this purpose, you must have prepared a series of activities which address development
and carefully monitored, the teacher not to assume this task
meet with the punishment of an unruly class and exhausting.

In short, the basic idea is that the school pursued as a priority objective
transmission and containing judged important from the point of view
adult. It is the child ceases to be a child as soon as possible and
acquire a valid knowledge and tools to move around the world
adults. This implies a view of the child as being devoid of these
notes together, a vision of the school as the institution
be provided as quickly and efficiently. The teacher, for
achieve this goal, it must pass the knowledge organizers
as appropriate and adapted to their students. They are only allowed to
follow the teacher's instructions, both as regards the initiative as
the completion of homework. Leave every teacher's content
that children should acquire, to compete he organized and structured and
depending as it does, the children treated with more or less rapidly. It
important that all activities, except those that are aimed at
rest and leisure, to be directed by him, it is the only way
assure educational value, in fact, the spontaneous activities of
Children may even hinder the process of acquiring the

In summary, we can summarize this in three ways:

The child, due to purely sensory stage of development that
is, spontaneous activity presents itself not have
same educational value.

To purchase this value activity, it needs to be
suggested, organized, directed and controlled by the teacher.

The master program activities based on a selection of
interests of the toddler: those that tend to encourage their adult.
Must now conceptualize the activity of student and teacher
the terms we used in the previous apparatus. We see that the activity
required of the infant can be considered as an activity
implementation (follow the instructions given the master) and monitoring

(Listen to their explanations), with a higher prevalence of the former over the
second, this dominance is not due to an explicit theoretical option but a
mistrust in the child's mental capacity to follow the explanations.
Simultaneously, the teacher is conceived as an organizer-Controller (choose,
prepares, organizes, directs and controls the activities) and as organizadorexpositor
(Selects, prepares, organizes, explains), with the same dominance of the
first on the second for similar reasons. The essential thing is to consider
the teacher as an organizer of knowledge, the predominance of one mode
transmission-intervention-especially-exhibition-not respond at all
a pedagogical and psychological option, but the apparent impermeability
children between three and six years before the systematic exposition of knowledge.

Functional education

In the early decades of this century appear in different countries
European and U.S. teaching a series of movements that
presented as alternatives to the prevailing educational ideas. By integrating these
movements of different occupational authors (teachers, educators,
psychologists, philosophers, doctors) that share a strong interest in the study
children. This is the case, for example by Dr. Montessori in Italy, Dr.
Decroly in Belgium, the United States Dewey, Kerschensteiner in Germany
Claparede Cousinet in France and Switzerland. Despite the differences
among them, all share a special attention to developing
child's psychological and concern that school work is carried out on
and interest from the student activity. Of these proposals
Active learning, we will retain only one in our analysis: the psychologist
Swiss E. Claparede.

Claparede is precisely because the development of a theory
systematized psychological principles of this new way of understanding
how deep-rooted education has been and is still in the picture
education in our country. A brief explanation of the main points
this theory will allow us to analyze the nature and function of activity
student and the teacher who, according Claparede, governs the active school.

The author explains the physical and mental activity in terms of body
functional. The individual lives in a state of unstable equilibrium with the environment
around him. This balance, because of the needs (biological, emotional,
intellectuals, ...) experienced by the body, breaks down frequently,
this point, the body takes the necessary actions to end
to restore the lost balance, however, returns to break
immediately by the effect of other needs. Life is the search for
a constant equilibrium constant broken and any action or behavior is
function to preserve, maintain or regain balance. These
behaviors are not random, but which are governed by a law which
Claparede widely made explicit in the "functional education" (1973)

Some of these laws are designed to identify factors
cause physical and mental activity of the individual. For example, laws
the need and the interest which we have quoted above. We will just add
third law, the exemption of mental life, which is particularly
relevant to the purpose that animates us. Under this law, when
satisfaction of needs can not be automatically intervenes
mental activity, which develops the means to satisfy it.
The harder it is to achieve satisfaction, the more important the role of
mental activity. We see that as Claparede, is thought
instrument of action, an instrument that comes into play when the satisfaction
a need (or achieving a goal) can not be so

Other laws, however, are directly aimed at explaining the
direction in which mental activity. We will cite only two of them.
According to the law of repetition of the similar, the body tends to repeat
activities in the past have been successful, ie they have
are adequate to meet the same or similar needs. It happens,
however, this repetition does not always lead to the expected result, in
this case involved the law of the trial, that, in situations where
that the individual can not appeal to past experience, the need (or
interest) causes the appearance of a series of reactions of searching,
trial and error.

As noted by M. Rossell (4), this explanation seems to coexist
two different epistemological views. First, the laws of
need, interest and the extent of mental life, to understand that
activity is the result of pressure from an external configuration
stimuli, but results from an internal need of the body appear
respond to a priori perspective. Indeed, for a configuration
stimuli induce the activity of the organism, it requires
is sensitized to it, ie corresponding to a need

or intrinsic interest. This highlights even more strongly in the autonomy law
works, which postulates that at each stage of its development, the organism has
reaction capabilities tailored to their needs. On the other hand,
laws that explain the direction taken by the activity, have a character
openly pragmatic and empiricist: the verification and subsequent selection
the results that has led the effort made is dictated by
the environment, the environment determines behavior as to be retained by the
The coexistence of these two disparate epistemological conceptions
Claparede explanation would be responsible for the lack of clarity of
theory regarding the structure and the intrinsic nature of thought. If
Claparede well point out the limitations of a pragmatic explanation of
acquisition of knowledge in his writings seems to dominate the idea that
knowledge are linked to each other through a system of

associations. This ambiguity will meet again later when
analyze the nature of the activity in the context of pedagogy

Claparede rejected the term "active learning" and replaced by
education "functional." Trying to avoid confusion this causes
adjective "active", which can be interpreted in the sense of an activity
externalizing necessarily observable. For activity can Claparede
lead or not lead to an outward movement of the pupil.

"The activity of students is not sufficient for a school like
"Active" (...). The word "active" is a vague word. For many "active"
moving means, which executes a job, he writes, draws, which
do something rather than confined to listen to (...). Well, I say
that an individual who thinks sitting in a chair may be more active than a
student who made a Latin translation (...).

It triggers a reaction that responds to a need that is
caused by a desire that has its point of departure in the individual acting,
by an internal movement of the self that acts. " (1973, p. 153 ff.)

From here, the author defines two different types of child's activity
in school: the functional activity, which is reflected in the last sentence
appointment and activity of actualization, which is synonymous with the movement and production.
This second type of activity need not necessarily respond to
student interest. The functional activity involves interest of the subject by the act
performed, the activity of actualization can be associated with both passive
functional (eg write an essay because they want to do it), and
conversely, the functional activity may be associated with both passive
of actualization (eg Play a conference of interest), as with
actualization activity (eg taking notes from a conference of interest).

The activity of actualization is thus not a feature
necessary nor sufficient for the active school that to be considered
as such, must be based on functional activity. Therefore Claparede
school argues that the educational process should actively involve three phases:

1. arousal of interest by appropriate situations, 2. appearance of
appropriate responses to meet the interest and 3. acquisition of
knowledge to control and manage these reactions. (1973, p.
Turning now to our conceptualization of student activity,
it is clear that functional education understood primarily as a
free activity in the sense that we have given to this expression. The school must
mobilize concerned first and foremost pupil activity, offering
opportunity they can fulfill their needs and achieve
objectives set out their own interests. It is however twice

problem of knowing how to get arouse students' interest and how
makes the acquisition of knowledge in educational practice. The
consideration of both aspects leads us directly to address the type of
activity that requires the teacher.

Regarding the first issue, the response of Claparede is clear: the game
is the main instrument that has the teacher to stimulate the interest of
pupil. However, from this moment the author's position is,
our view, much less transparent and appear again some
ambiguity and even apparent contradictions that seem to be in
closely related to the coexistence of the two epistemological perspectives
disparate we noted earlier. Indeed, as pointed out by itself Claparede
the fact that the student feels a need or has an interest does not ensure
automatically means necessary, proper technique, to adjust their
What activities the student will acquire these means, this knowledge?
What should the role of the teacher in this case? Logically, a
free activity for the student can only be accompanied by a
concept of teacher as observer, facilitator and / or observer-controller.
In fact, in our analysis of the work of Claparede, we have found
both concepts without being possible to discern a definitive position
regard. But what is more surprising is that sometimes
We had the impression that speaks Claparede the role of teacher
terms similar to what we call the organizer-inventor, which
would be true, totally incompatible with the free activity of student
which is the only one who collects the author of functional education. With the purpose of
remain as faithful as possible to the author's thought and of preventing a
deformation of it, transcribe a few paragraphs where they appear
forth these concepts. Begin with the conception of
master observer-controller:

"In this new conception of education, the role of teacher
it's totally transformed. It must not behave as a being
Knowing who remodeled the understanding and fill the spirit with
knowledge. Must be a stimulator of interest, raising needs
intellectual and moral. It should be for their students, rather than a collaborator,
ex cathedra a teacher. Instead of merely transmitting
knowledge they possess, will help students acquire them for
themselves through work and personal research. The enthusiasm,
scholarship, will be its principal virtue "(1973, p. - 184) (7)

In the next paragraph commenting on the activities of the "House of
Petits "experimental school of Jean Jacques Rousseau Institute in Geneva,
Claparede seems closer to a conception of teacher observadorfacilitador:

"For children, the Petits Maison is indeed home. Located in
through a large garden, near an orchard, children come and go, come and
out when he wants to the needs of their occupation.

Complains that we let the children "do what they want." But
there is nothing wrong with that if all you want to do it well. And
precisely here where the teacher intervenes discretely, which provides
things so that the child is attracted to the occupations
stimulate their intellectual, moral and social (...).

I prefer to reverse the formula and say that, in the Maison of the Petits,
we want the kids want what they do. We act, not to
make them act. In fact, an activity that is not accepted by the
done, which is executed against his will, does not include all
educational consequences, is not an agent of growth of the personality. "
(1972, p. 194). (7).

Consider finally how the initiative in the development of the activity
always accompanied by the lead in implementing it. In
We sometimes have the impression that, for Claparede, the only criterion
necessary for an activity to be functional is the fact that
respond to student interest, whether it is subsequently
directed and participated in its development by the educator:

"Given a child a list of twenty words for you to copy. Is it a
play or work? It may be one or the other. It all depends on engine
elijais to bring this activity. Decides that, if you do not, "you will be punished"
and have the impression of an outrageous charge. Propose, however, this
test as a game is, for example, copies the words "as
rapidly as possible "so that they can beat their peers in
competition, in this case, the deal will see the task and will gladly
impression that "this play."

"The role of language teacher is to tell students: Do you have
need to express a past, a future? Well, here all
ways to formulate these ideas. Want to express doubt, the number
mode '..., here in multiple ways exist to express without
misunderstandings these thoughts. " (1973, p. 166) (7).

In short, functional education puts into play Claparede
student activity of the type we have called free activity, which
combined with a conception of the teacher-facilitator and observer
observer-controller. The emphasis given by the functional psychology interest
and the need to do, however, that the free activity is mostly
understood as the activity that originates in the student being
least the way it develops and the degree of intervention
direction of the teacher in that development. This, on the other hand, we

seems related to the limited attention given by psychology
functional to the problem of the nature and structure of thought.

The two proposals are teaching that we have addressed
enough differential in accordance with the rules of inter-activity
they espouse. With this statement does not mean to imply that their differentiation
only be given to this aspect, but only that this aspect of the difference
unequivocally. However one thing is to analyze educational practice. The
Inter-activity concept and modalities of it that we
distinguished, is it also pertienentes and discriminative when
examine different teaching practices? We will deal with this
problem in the following section.

By identifying the underlying dimensions
interactivity in Kindergarten.

For about a year (January, 1980), components
Research Group we are committed to this educational psychology
task. The point of departure is the conceptualization of inter-activity
which we presented above (Bassedas, Coll and Solé, February 1980) the corpus of
empirical evidence consists primarily of 36 protocols
observation of activities throughout the school day by
as many infant classes. These observations have been made
during the academic year (1978-79) in twelve schools located in Barcelona (cip
1978) selected two criteria: the existence of other levels
school in the center (EGB, BUP, FP) and the type of state facility or
municipal, private, religious. At each site have been observed three classes:
a maternal (3 / 4 years), one of the first nursery (4 / 5 years) and one
second nursery (5 / 6 years), so, of the 36 protocols of observation,
12 correspond to the first level, 12 to 12 to second and third. In parallel,
has remained an in-depth interviews with classroom teachers
observed which have addressed issues such as planning
Activities, priorities, representing the characteristics of the child
preschool, the material used and selection criteria, etc.

Some aspects of the work done by the CIP on this
material have given rise to public presentations. It should also be cited as
important milestones in the quest for relevant dimensions for
empirical analysis of the inter-activity, the work of Forum (1981) and Rossel
(1981), the latter done on different empirical material. Without wishing
summarize this work, we rather try to expose in the pages
continue the way we currently face in the empirical analysis
interactivity. We have to qualify, however, still is not a
ultimate instrument for the analysis of inter-activity, but a
validity and reliability proposal is under investigation.

Preliminary considerations

Previous work we have cited have led us to analyze
interactivity as follows:

Our goal is not, at least for the moment, studying the interaction
teacher / student, but rather the inter-activity, ie
significance of the activity of the teacher in relation to the significance
student's activity as a way to characterize different
psychoeducational conceptions of teaching-learning process.
In fact, in our view, the analysis of the interaction can only exit
impasse in which it is if addressed in the context of Inter.actividad.

The unit of analysis of interactivity is the teaching sequence
(The mini teaching-learning) and basic aspects
as the actions and / or verbalizations of the teacher and student,
But what is primarily interested in the meaning of psycho-
relationship. Thus, although the level of empirical indicators
we must appeal to certain actions of both characters
during the development of SD, we must emphasize we are not interested
all proceedings, but only those that are significant
teaching sequences of different nature.

If we define a teaching sequence as a teaching-learning process
miniature, this implies the need to identify or
infer the main components of a teaching-learning process
(Coll, 1980, oo. 75-83): specific educational objectives,
use of a given material, certain actions of
teacher, addressed to the student, certain actions of
students on the material and about the objectives and proposed content
by the teacher, certain expectations of the teacher on
student performance, ability to conduct an assessment of
student performance based on teacher expectations.
Thus, to speak of a SD will have to identify
unequivocally its development, its beginning and its end. In other words, the
empirical analysis of the interactivity required dimensions
for these three moments of the SD

Our analysis of the interactivity is limited for now to
cognitive aspects of the teaching sequences, ie the
different ways of conceiving the appropriation of knowledge
(Knowledge, skills, values), that these vehicles. Aspects
socio-affective or psycho-sociafectivos are integrated in this sense, but
are not treated as such. We aim only to reflect different
conceptions of the process of acquisition or appropriation of knowledge and
affective and relational aspects are an integral part of these

Our analysis of the inter-activity is limited by the time the
Preschool equation. Having identified the scale and

relevant indicators, explore their possible adaptation to other levels

Dimensions relevant to the analysis of inter-activity

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