Conceptual delimitation" "social work

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Postmodernism= Rejection of totalizing theories; pursuit of localizing and contingent theories. Social and cultural pluralism, disunity, unclear bases for social/national/ethnic unity. Sense of fragmentation and decentered self;  multiple, conflicting identities. Skepticism of progress, anti-technology reactions, neo-Luddism; new age religions.....Modernism=Faith in "Grand Theory" (totalizing explantions in history, science and culture) to represent all knowledge and explain everything. Faith in, and myths of, social and cultural unity, hierarchies of social-class and ethnic/national values, seemingly clear bases for unity. Sense of unified, centered self;  "individualism," unified identity..By lifeworld Habermas means the shared common understandings that develop through face to face contacts over time in various socials groups. Lifeworld carries all sorts of assumptions about who we are as people and what we value. The point of such rationalization is to reduce the person to part of the machinery by which the system does what it does. Choices are strictly limtied. Ritzer points out how McDonalds "works" as a system by putting customers to work. Foucault argues that 'disciplinary power' gradually took over from 'sovereign power' in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Even now, however, remnants of sovereign power still remain in tension with disciplinary power. Power is made invisible and the objects of power are made visible. At the core of Foucault's picture of modern “disciplinary” society are three primary techniques of control: hierarchical observation, normalizing judgment, and the examination. To a great extent, control over people (power) can be achieved merely by observing them.  A perfect system of observation would allow one “guard” to see everything

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