for the construction of the text
Juliana Vianna Segadas(UFRJ)
Michelli Bastos Ferreira (UFRJ)
The course of Portuguese Language Workshop inspired by the difficulty arose, checked with the students enrolled in courses in writing, to make the grammatical revision of their own texts. It was observed that for both, was required for greater understanding of the syntax of the language. In other words, these students lacked a better understanding of the organization of the Portuguese and the fundamental relations arising from the organization, such as conducting and agreement.
Thinking of solving this problem, the course of the workshop focuses on grammar and sentence of the text. Menus are provided for general notions of syntax and punctuation, starting with the smallest constituents to the more complex processes of coordination and subordination, and general rules of agreement and conducting.
In order to provide an overview of the course, this article is organized into sections: basics of syntax and punctuation, coordination and subordination, conducting verbal and nominal, nominal and verbal agreement. At the end of each section are presented proposals for activities designed to promote the assimilation of the contents studied in class, from the reflection on the English language.
It starts, for the preparation of this work, the material adopted, especially for the course of Portuguese Language Workshop Project CLAC / UFRJ. We seek, therefore, provide the technical and methodological guide this pedagogical. Thus, this work shows various exercises performed during the course and their respective goals.
The research herein presented, objective point the exercises for these students, always being careful to obey an order of increasing difficulty.
Finally, we discuss further strategies to suit the learning and heterogeneous public that often seek the course of the workshop: students Letras interested in deepening knowledge of Portuguese and individuals interested in tendering.
Syntax and Punctuation
As you know, the score is a convention that is not intended simply to imitate speech, but to order the writing in accordance with a code pattern. To master the rules of punctuation, it is important to have some notions of syntax.
According to the grammarian Celso Pedro Luft, the syntax of a language is "part of grammar which deals with relations contract that the words in the phrase" that is, correspond to the ordering of words into larger units - the phrases. The organization of the phrases, in turn, implies the formation of prayers, which together make up periods. Therefore, the ordering periods as texts. See:
WORDS SINTAGMA ? ? ? Prayer ? TEXT TIME
You can also say that the syntax, or organization of a language entails some fundamental relationships such as conducting the areas, placement, which are studied throughout the course.
The term governance, derived from the governing verb, means 'command, administration, direction'. In a broad sense, is the verb that governs all the terms of prayer. For example, the phrase Those abandoned children ate the food arrived, it is possible to observe that the verb "eat" implies that "someone" eats "something". That "someone", that is what we are talking about is called the subject of prayer. Now this "something" is the complement of the verb in question, and along with it, is considered as what we say about it, ie, the predicate of the sentence.
The agreement, in turn, is due to the relations of conducting a prayer. The element that determines the verb agreement is the subject. Therefore, the best definition of the subject would be "the element with which the verb agrees." Since the predicate would be "all that is said about the subject."
The placement is the mechanism that regulates the spatial arrangement of words in the sentence. The way to have the words vary from language to language: each one has its own mechanisms for placement. A sentence is in direct order when the words are arranged in the progression of the antecedent for the consequent, namely:
SUBJECT VERB ? ? ? VERB COMPLEMENTS OF DEPUTY
(2) The U.S. criticized ? ? ? Iraq severely
The subject and predicate of a sentence constitute what might be called basic information (SVO) in a statement.
Syntax and Punctuation in exercises
The following are a few proposals that exemplify the activities applied for setting the course.
Proposta1: Identify the types of syntactic structure in which prayers are made:
a) The boy asked, during class, the matter to the teacher.
The proposal (1) exercises the basics of syntax - such as governance, compliance and placement - worked on the course and score. Each item of the proposal, the student starts from the observation of the verb, trying to infer the structure designed by him. For example, in (a), the verb "ask" to assume that 'someone' question 'something' 'someone', ie it is a verb of 3 arguments: the subject admits and requires two additions. Thus, the student has the first contact with the notion of "patterns oraciones" which contains certain syntactic patterns from which any actual words of the language is constructed.
Determining the argument structure of the verb, the student returns to the proposed sentence and identifies the elements that make up the basic information. In the example, they would be: the subject, 'the boy', the verb 'said', the direct object 'matter' and indirect object 'the teacher'. You see, then, that the structure 'during the class' set an additional information to prayer, since it is included in the argument structure of the verb. Thus, the student can understand the score that is used to isolate between the commas adjunct moved (further information).
Proposal 2: Construct two examples for each type of syntactic structure:
The proposal (2) also exercises the basics of syntax and punctuation. However, it is the student who must create the sentence. Based on the understanding that the language provides syntactic patterns for every phrase, that is, the notion of 'standards oración', the student should look for in each item verbs applied to design the structure. For example, in (a), we have a verb that allows subject and does not require complement also designs a structure subject postponed. The student could think of several verbs designing this structure, such as 'birth', 'place', 'appear', 'appear', among others.
After the construction of the sentence, which could be 'three children were born,' he adds adjunct - provided the exercise by the symbol 'X' - understand that this is a complementary, that is not part of the argument structure of the verb . Thus we have the phrase 'In Home Health St. Joseph, were born three children', for example, where the deputy displaced must be isolated by a comma.
Proposal 3: From the examples given, Rate the prayers properly, then, formulate rules of punctuation:
a) The room was huge, empty, dark.
The head teachers students participated in the gymkhana.
I liked the friends of the city school.
The wind carried the roof the world seemed to come down.
The proposal (3), designed to exercise the other scoring rules. From the observation of the example already properly punctuated - 'The room was huge, empty, dark' - the student must score the other sentences. It starts from the assumption that all sentences follow the same rule. In other words, punctuated by analyzing the case, the student can score the other phrases and then infer the rule of punctuation that explains all the phrases listed. For example, in 'The room was huge, empty, dark', the score separates various predicates of 'the room'. Based on this observation, the student subliminally infers that the terms have the same syntactic function: they are predicative.
In the other sentences, the same occurs. In 'The director, students, teachers participated in the demonstration', for example, the terms 'director', 'students', 'teachers' are subjects of the verb 'participate'. In other words, have the same syntactic function. Proceeding in this way, the student is led to infer the rule: separates by commas elements of the same syntactic function.
Coordination and Subordination
Coordination and subordination are the two processes of syntactic structure established by the Brazilian Grammatical Nomenclature in force and focused for the most traditional grammarians guidance. However, the aforementioned NGB only has the wordscoordination and subordination from the item on the compounding period. However, in the course of Portuguese Language Workshop, the student will study these processes of syntactic structure in two different contexts: the formation of phrases and training periods.
The processes of coordination and subordination in the exercises
The following are some proposals for activities we do with the students in the classroom:
Proposal 1: Examine the periods below and tell if they are composed of coordination or subordination. Justify your answer, and then establish a difference between these two processes in syntax.
He slept and dreamed. A foot-ball of dust the foliage of Imburanas, Miss Victoria was picking lice in the eldest son, whale rested his head on the whetstone.
The fragment is composed of three periods. The first period, "He slept and dreamed," is composed of coordination. There is the addition of information and ideas, marked by the use of the coordinating conjunction additive E. The second sentence of the above fragment is composed of coordination, but, unlike the former, the combination of prayer takes place without the interference of conjunctive links. In this case, coordination is asyndetic. This process of internal structuring of prayer differs from tying, because the prayers are syntactically independent, which does not occur in tying, in which the subordinate clause has syntactic function in the main clause, in relation plugin, dependency.
The goal of implementing the above exercise is the intention of assisting the student in defining the concepts presented, using examples of compounding periods.
Proposal 2: Make a difference syntactic (function and type of prayer) and the semantics of the prayers mentioned:
The politicians who are corrupt, do not fulfill their promises.
Politicians who are corrupt do not fulfill their promises.
In the 1st sentence, "who are corrupt" is a prayer that serves as bet explanatory value has non-restricted. Prayer is classified as a subordinate clause adjectival explanatory. This is an additional statement.
In the 2nd sentence, "who are corrupt" acts as assistant adnominal prayer which appears seated. Restrictive and has value is essential to the sense of the period. So, do not use any punctuation between this sentence and the nucleus of the noun phrase which appears embedded.
Because it is always subject to the matters charged in open, we try to always show the student through exercises, the syntactic and semantic features that distinguish the adjectival subordinate clauses and restrictive adjectival subordinate notes.
Regency verbal and nominal
As the study Syntax deals with relations contract that the words in the sentence, it is important that students understand the mechanism by which the verbs and their complements command names.
Note the following example:
(i) the owner has canceled the sale of the property.
As you can see, the governing verb, ie, commands all prayer: the verb cancel allows us to infer that "someone" break "something." That "something" is the complement of the verb in question. One can therefore say that the governing verb (command) the accessories, making a verbal regency.
Moreover, there is that same example, that the name needs to sell a supplement, that is, there is always the sale of something. " In this case, the name (sale) governs a complement (the property), establishing a nominal regency.
Generally, each speaker dominates the regency of verbs and the names that are part of their usual repertoire. However, there are often disagreements between the popular usage and use worship. It can also happen that the speaker is simply unaware of certain cultural norms regencies not occur in popular use. Therefore, we present some cases that tend to cause doubts in each of these kinds of rulership.
Regency Verbal and Nominal in exercises
The following are a few proposals that illustrate the activities used in the course.
Proposal 1: Describe the meaning of the highlighted verbs in the sentences that follow:
a) "Do not be summoned so far in a hurry, a creature who despises (...)" (Osmar Lins)
b) I called him a fool before all that flattered.
The proposal (1) shows verbs that change meaning according to the change in the regency. The student will identify, initially, that meanings are expressed by the verb. In (a), the verb 'call' brings the idea of 'calling the presence of someone'. In (b), the meaning is another, brings the idea of 'one termed'. Thus, they are given the rudiments of conducting verbal.
Proposal 2. Rewrite the following sentences according to official language standard, noting the issues of conducting:
a) The singer I most sympathize is Roberto Carlos
b) Everybody worked in what he liked most.
The proposal (2) conducting works by presenting verbal phrases common in spoken language, where there is deviation from the standard. From the observation of the verb, the student finds the divergence and rewrite the sentence correctly. For example, in (a), the word 'sympathize' presupposes that 'someone' sympathy 'withsomeone ', ie, in the phrase' The singer I most sympathize is Roberto Carlos', the preposition requested by the verb has been deleted, and should be replaced. The same is true in part (b). In "Everyone worked in what he liked most," the verb 'like' presupposes that 'someone' like 'something'. Here, the preposition also been abolished, and be replaced on the rewriting of the sentence.
Proposal 3: Replace the words in bold the words in brackets, paying attention to the phenomenon of backquote:
a) The temperature to strict criminal justice system are the main subject. (regulations)
b) John Alvino has obtained assurances that there would be presented to the public. (release)
The proposal (3) works regency verbal and nominal, focusing on the phenomenon of crase. By replacing the word in bold with the word provided in brackets, the student some basic exercises for the phenomenon, which is the sum requested by the preposition or verb with the name of the definite article.
Proposal 4: Explain the difference in direction and governance of the verb in the watch below, due to the regency differentiated:
"Rio 1 to watch because the Record Record assiste2 Rio"
The proposal (4) exhibits a greater degree of difficulty. Here is part of the semantics of the verb to infer the structure projected by him. In (1), the verb 'see' means 'see', 'witness' the structure and design 'somebody' watching 'something', that is, the word calls for a complement of preposition governed. In (2), the regency is another. With the meaning of 'assist', 'help', the verb 'see' the structure design 'somebody' watching 'someone', ie the verb requests a supplement without preposition.
Concordance Verbal and Nominal
We know that the syntax, ie, the organization of a language entails some fundamental relations such as coordination, subordination, the regency, and the placement agreement.
In the course we refer to this study, the correlation is defined as the mechanism by which some words change their endings, to accommodate the other words. Therefore, it is pointed out that, in Portuguese, there are two types of agreement: the verbal (1), which deals with the verb changes to accommodate its subject, and nominal (2), which deals with changes to adjectival words accommodate the name to which they relate.
(1) The Brazilians / are / football fans.
subject ? verb
(2) Many Brazilians enjoy the basketball / American.
name ? adjective
In terms of the agreement either verbal or nominal, the course features which include several sub-cases that favor the occurrence of non-verb agreement in order to make the student know and be familiar with the cases that cause misunderstandings.
Nominal and verbal agreement in exercises
Note, then, some commands of activities on nominal and verbal agreement, proposed during the course of Portuguese Language Workshop:
Proposal 1: From the examples given, complete the sentences properly, then, formulate rules nominal agreement:
Do not leave the doors open. (open)
The black bag and white shoes in the closet. (black / white)
PrincipleAdjectives agree in gender and number with the name referred to.
Proposal 2: From the examples given, complete the sentences properly, then, formulate rules of verb agreement:
1. The rain fell violently in the backyard and soaked the red sand. (fall / soak)
2. When Joseph and his daughter arrived, soon announced. (get / post)
3. Among them were left with no feeling. (remaining)
PrincipleThe verb must always agree in number and person with the subject to which they refer, since it is the element that determines the verbal agreement.
The aim of the proposals 1 and 2 is to sensitize the student to drawing on examples of language use (Step 1 of the year), to conclude the rules governing employment in focus (2nd stage of the activity pointed).
Over a four-month process, the duration of the course, one can see that students are able to comment, explain and understand the grammatical assumptions about what is studied. The view that acquire a much broader and questioning of what you see and what applies in the interaction process in relation to language.
It is understood the studied options such as the speaker of the language in situational context, as part of his speech. Thus, a mistaken use of certain punctuation, can compromise the whole text in the sense that the intention / purpose for which it was written is not answered. Similarly, the strategies of subordination and coordination will influence the process of writing the student, showing greater control and coordination of existing mechanisms of language.
It is with this objective that organizes the course of the Office of the Portuguese language. The aim is therefore to point out the grammatical rules and classifications as well as subsidies for the production of student writing, and preparing for the exam and other Public Procurement.
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