1- What is (describe it) Select one and How this influence learning?
BEHAVIORISM (praisals & punisments) (motivation)
A learning theory based on pleasurable or painful consequences (positive/negative reinforcers and punishments)
-Control and develop motivation.
How information is received, organized, stored and retrieved by the mind, through the process of retain and recall.
-Increase lexical items
CONSTRUCTIVISM (create your own knowledge)
Creation of own knowledge from experiences and ideas.
-Foments peer group / class discussion
-Students personalize their learning.
How does CONSTRUCTIVISM influence learning?
CONSTRUCTIVISM influences learning because the students learn best by "constructing" new ideas based on comparison with current and previous knowledge. Learning is an active progress and the student share their experiences by a Class discussion with the group and learn from each other which is extremely important.
2- How TBLT came about? What is its motto and its parts. (Task-based Language Teaching)
How? To know the difference between grammar rules and how to communicate effectively using that grammatical knowledge based on communicative tasks.
Motto: Learning by doing. (e.G. Writing a report, taking part in a discussion)
Parts:Pre-task > background knowledge
While-task > written/spoken understand
Language Work > structure use
Post-task > real-world situation
3- What are 3 ways that teachers can enhance learning?
1. By giving real-world situations or practice.
E.G. Know how to communicate in a trip.
2. To be aware of the students' necessities.
E.G. According to his/her learning styles.
3. Challenge students by giving them ONLY ONE level above their actual knowledge (i+1)
4- What is background knowledge and Explain the importance of background knowledge in learning?
BGK is the previous knowledge we already have. (the knowledge previously obtained)
It is important because it helps (you) to comprehend new tasks and ideas for the new knowledge by
How? connecting old & new information using retrieval.
5- Express the process of assimilation, accommodation and equilibration (adaptation) and give an example. (Piaget's Cognitive Constructivism)
First, assimilation happens when we have a new learning experience and we find out that we can or cannot keep it in a previous known schema; then, if we can't, we create a new schema to accommodate the new information; and finally, when we already understand when and how to use that new learning, takes us to equilibration.
E.G. a) Student knows that "will" is future ("She will play soccer") - here, the student needs to accomodate because "may" is a possibility and "will" was certainty.
b) Once he/she has understood both (may & will), equilibration has taken place.