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1. Describe the qualities of four different types of coal found in India. How is Coal formed?(i) Peat is a low carbon and high in moisture(ii) Lignite is a low grade brown coal, soft and high moisture content.(iii) Bituminus coal content high carbon and low moisture most popular coal in Commercial use.(iv) Anthracite is the highest quality hard coal. Coal is formed due to the Compression of plant material over million years. Most coal is formed during Carboniferons periods.2. What are renewable resources ? Why has it become necessary to use renewable Energy resources? Ans. The resources which can be renewed or reproduced by Physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as renewable resources.Dependence on fossilfuels ie, coal, oil and gas and rising prices of oil and Gas and their potential shortages have raised uncertainities about security of energy supply in future, which affect the growth of national economy. Besides, The use of fossil fuels also causes serious environmental problems Hence, there Is a need for use of renewable energy resources.3. What is mineral ? Mention two types of formations in which they occur.Ans. Rocks are Combinations of homogeneous substances called minerals.(i) It occurs in cracks, crevices, faults and joints, particularly Igneous and Metamorphic rocks.(ii) It also occurs in beds and layers particularly in sedimentary rocks.4. In what ways are some manufacturing industries dependent on mineral resources ?Ans. Some manufacturing industries based on minerals resources transform raw Materials into valuable industrial products. Iron and steel, cement, aluminium, Petrochemical are mineralbased industry. They use raw meterials into finished Products.5. Explain why the use of non-conventional sources of energy is becoming necessary In our country? Give three reasons. Ans. The use of non-conventional Sources of energy is becoming necessary in our country for the following Reasons.(i) Rising prices of oil and gas.(ii) To Save environmental pollution.(iii) As a renewable source of energy.6. Describe any three factors which play a very important role in turning a Mineral reserve into a mine. (i) The concentration of mineral in the Ore.(ii) The ease of extraction of minerals.(iii) Closeness to the market.

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