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FILMS AND IDEOLOGY

1)     1)  Laura Mulvey's essay about the Male Gaze Theory was initially used to study films


2)      2) Laura Mulvey article constitutes an attack on the notion of scopophilia


3)      3)  Scopophilia, insists Mulvey, refers to the pleasure of looking as well as the sexual objectification of women in film


4)     4)  Laura Mulvey works on the visual and film narrative has been particularly influential.
Although Mulvey's theory has been subject to considerable revision, it's still worthwhile in terms of cultural studies and visual cultures. Her work investigates the notion of the male gaze


5)      5) According to Laura Mulvey theory women are often represented in film in relation to male desire

           6)  Laura Mulvey points out in her article Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema that women in popular cinema are invariably depicted as sexual objects


7)     7)  Mulvey argues that cinema should not be obsessively subordinated to the needs of the male ego


8)     8)  Systems of beliefs, values and opinions based on underlying assumptions about the way the world should be are known as ideologies

9)      9 ) The group of individuals whose careers and lives were interrupted or ruined by having been listed in The Waldorf Statement were known as The Hollywood blacklist


10)  10)  In The Birth of a Nation (1915), African Americans are characterized as rapists who threaten white women

11)  11)  In The Birth of a Nation (1915), African Americans are characterized as rapists who threaten white women


12)   12) Oscar Micheaux directed the first African-American feature film

13)  13)  Films screened late at night for black audiences in white-owned theaters during the era of segregation were known as midnight rambles

14)   14 ) Some critics complain that studio-era films like Gone with the Wind and Shirley Temple's childhood films (e.G., The Little Colonel) are racist because they present black characters in a demeaning way

15)   15)  "Blaxploitation" films celebrated black power and resistance to dominant white culture


16)  16)  Sidney Poitier became the first African American man to win an Academy Award

17)  17)  The Motion Picture Production Code offered a set of guidelines that detailed various offenses against middle-class morality not to be shown on film and was officially placed into effect in 1930

18)  18)  The Production Code was a set of rules that controlled the content of movies from the 1930s until the late '60s.

19)   19) The term "celluloid closet" refers to the fact that Hollywood films rarely depict gay and lesbian protagonists

20) Contemporary film scholarship reveals that gay and lesbian characters make appearances throughout the history of cinema. Often function as plot devices that affirm heterosexual coupling and are frequently meant to provoke humor or pity       

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