CONTENTS 1 º and 2 º ESO

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CONTENTS 1 º Y 2 º DE ESO
ITEM 1-THE SOUND / FUNDAMENTALS OF ACOUSTICS.
Physics is a science in which changes of state of the bodies may be reversible, unlike chemistry, in which state changes are irreversible. (Changes of state of water in physical / chemical combustion).
The acoustics is a branch of study of physics is the science dedicated to the study of sound, especially within an industry that is this musical acoustics.
The sound waves are transmitted, we hear, but they are invisible, the sound with that music does is done with regular longitudinal waves, but for this we have to differentiate what is sound and noise.
The sound can be pitch, or height, which is technically called frequency, while noise can `` no''or musical note to be tuned, this is why music is (generally) with sounds, not noise, although both, that it be received by the human ear.

The sound has 4 characteristics or qualities that are:
a) - Hue, also called pitch or frequency, a sound as this tune or has more frequently may be more acute or less often (more serious)
b) - Timbre. It is this quality that allows us to distinguish one sound from another even if in the same tone ... plays a flute and guitar also, same note, but captures our ears because they are different instruments have different timbre.
C-Duration. It refers to what that sound is kept in time is measured in seconds (and later we will see that by the figures) so there may be long or short sounds.
d) - Intensity. It is the force that is manifest that sound. What we commonly call `` volume''or `` power''. It is measured in decibels. In music played with him through the dynamics.

ITEM 2-GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF SOUND

Musical notes.
In our musical system, grades are 7: do, re, mi, fa, sol, la and si.
Pentagram
The pentagram is the place where the music is written, consists of 5 lines and 4 spaces at equal distance from each other. The score would be the score + notes and other signs, ie the staff and `` filler''.
Additional lines
The additional lines are those that are placed on the top or bottom of the staff and used to represent those notes being too serious or too sharp not fit in it.



Keys.
The key is a sign placed at the beginning of the score of a musical work and we will give the name of the notes.
The most used is the sun (where the sun is in the second line of the staff).
The starters used in music, female voices, male voices acute, and many instruments like guitar, flute, saxophone and piano right hand.
The bass clef is also widely used, is used for more serious sound like male voices, the left hand on the piano and instruments like the bass, trombone or tuba.
The key of C is now very obsolete using even the advanced students of music and instruments such as the viola or bassoon.

fa sol do

Alterations.
The minimum distance between 2 notes may be tone or semitone, taking into consideration whenever a tone is 2 semitones.

Thus we say that the changes alter the natural state by moving a note one semitone.
The 3 most common alterations are:
"The sharp (#), when placed next to a note one semitone alters crawling.
"The flat (b), when placed next to a note alters pulling down a semitone.
"The natural sign (), when placed next to a note returns to its natural state automatically canceling the effect it had on the # and the b.
The concept of fundamental Enarmonia be here because if we put a piano keyboard can see that the black key that is between do and re do it if we went from #, and only if we do re, re b.




So the key is (as many), 2 names. The Inline is therefore a characteristic of our musical system which says that a single note can be at times, 2 different names.
So do # is equal to re, but my # would also equal to fa.


TEMPERA COLOR SYSTEM AND SCALE
The system is tempered our current musical system was devised in the late fifteenth century by the Spanish Bartolomé Ramos de Pareja, and consists in dividing the octave into 12 equal semitones.
First we say that the octave is the distance between two notes of the same name do such a severe acute to do is eighth away. So in that distance is in the notes or that there are twelve semitones.
The chromatic scale is one that includes the 12 semitones of the system and this is tempered.



DO - DO # - RE - RE # - E - F - F # - Sol - Sol # - la - la # - if (ascending)

Diatonic scale
If the chromatic scale was by semitones, is the diatonic tones and semitones, halftones lying between grades III and IV - VII and (VIII). The diatonic scale has 7 sounds, and the eighth and did not belong, being also the first of a new scale.



Do (T) Re (T) E (st) F (T) Sun (T) (T) If (st) Do








UNIT 3 THE PACE

PACE, METRIC AND FREQUENCY
The pace is natural as there is outside that may have music or not having. For example market exact day has a rhythm of 24 hours or quarterly stations succeed because we see there is a rhythm that is natural, this rate is Based on the frequency is the repetition of a sequence of evenly spaced intervals.
The measure would take that to the musical rhythm, using a system based on the duration of the figures and division of time in bars.
FIGURES, AND SILENCE DURATIONS
The figures are signs that represent the duration of the notes.


Each figure will last half of the above if we are going from left to right, being the longest round. Instead each figure twice the duration of the above if we go from right to left being the sixty-fourth note of shorter duration.


TIE, DOT AND CALDERON

The ligature is a downward curve that unites a number of notes (equal height), adding their durations.


The small dot is placed to the right of the figure and that adds to this half of its value.

Bottlenose Dolphin is a semi-circle with a dot in the middle that is placed over a figure rising to this all the time you want the interpreter.





METER OPERATION

To sort the pictures and sounds were created metrically compasses are two figures of a fraction called numerator and denominator, as we discuss the figure above or below.



The numerator indicates the number of parties that have a compass.
The denominator indicates the figure of reference call.




"If this figure is a 1 will be around.
"If this figure is 2 be white.
"If it is 4 this figure will be black.
-Etc ...


















BINARY AND TERNARY COMPAS COMPAS

It is said that one measure is binary when it has 2 parts.
We say that a ternary rhythm is when you have 3 parts.
It is also said that one measure is binary subdivision when the figure of reference in a full article (white, black, etc. ...)
We say that a compass is ternary subdivision when the reference figure is a dotted note, for example (dotted quarter)




Top examples of meter binary-ternary and quaternary. Depending on the number of parts.
As we consider the subdivision would have bars of subdivision above binary and ternary subdivision down bars.


ITEM 4 - melody and harmony

The melody is a set of sounds arranged with a musical approach.
This consists of phrases. Phrase could define as a small musical motif, which ordered and repeated several times as a melody.

Harmony is when 3 or more sounds simultaneously forming sounding chords for the harmony that could be defined as that part of the music that studies the formation and linkage of the chords.
Chord - A chord is when you play 3 or more notes simultaneously. The most used line or from which they derive the others are the major and minor.

The fundamental difference between major and minor chord is that in the lower, normally the central note is a semitone lower.

Although the line between major and minor only difference is a note of the ear are very different in different modes deriving so-called `` major and minor mode''that may well define the character of a musical piece.
It is said that the major chord is more robust and less finished and more languid or even sad, but this are findings of an aesthetic nature and rather subjective.

ITEM 5 & Organology timbre (musical instruments)

"The timbre is that part of acoustics devoted to study the different sounds, similarities and differences and so on. ...
The Organology is that part of the timbre and music dedicated to classify the instruments.
There are many ways to classify the instruments, but the approach we follow here a mixture of what is built and which technique is used to handle.
"Stringed instruments are those that have no fixed pitch and turning it into an outlet get lower or raise the tone of the stringed instrument and generally getting the desired pitch.

Bowed string - in string instruments rarely touch the strings with the fingers, but using a bow that slides over the strings.
Instruments in this group are the violin, viola, cello and bass.

Plucked (or dots) - plucked string instruments are those which directly touch the strings with the fingers or a plectrum, commonly called a pick.
Instruments in this group are the guitar, lute, harp or even ukulele.

Plucked strings - The piano is an instrument difficult to classify because it often has been classified under the percussion group, but this is now much discussed as pine inside what you are strings which are hit for small decks that are in turn driven by a mechanism to press.

"Wind instruments
are those that need to made a stream of air (or air column), inside, most of which this is accomplished by blowing the instrument. Usually classified according to the material it is constructed.

Wood-wind are constructed of this material or were initially despite being otherwise today: clarinet, oboe, bassoon, flute, recorder, saxophone.

Brass - Metallic materials are constructed almost entirely, examples of this are: trumpet, horn, trombone and tuba.



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