Positive Reinforcement: behavior followed by addition of stimulus (SD) the behavior is strengthened. During Positive Reinforcement, stimulus is presented immediately after a behavior and increases the behavior in the future. E.G. Play a guitar and everyone cheers; playing a guitar is strengthened.
Negative Reinforcement: behavior followed by removalof stimulus (SD) the behavior is strengthened. During Negative Reinforcement, behavior is followed by the Removal of a consequence.E.G. Close a window to stop air from blowing in; closing the window is strengthened.
Conditioned Reinforcement: learned e.G. Tangibles (money), activities, social reinforcers, and generalized reinforcers.
Continuous Reinforcement/FR1: reinforcement is received after each correct response. Typically used in the initial stages of learning/strengthening new behavior.
Intermittent: reinforcement varies from one opportunity to the next. Most resistant to extinction and implemented when maintaining behaviors that are already learned.
Fixed Ratio (FR): fixed number of responses. This schedule produces a steady, high rate of response with pauses after reinforcement or a break-and-run pattern.
Variable Ratio (VR): average number of responses. This schedule produces a steady, very high rate of responses very brief pauses of reinforcement.
Fixed Interval (FI): fixed amount of time. This schedule produces a low at first and then gradually increases.
Variable Interval (VI): average amount of time. This schedule produces a steady, medium rate of responses with very brief pauses after reinforcement.
Motivating Operations (MO):some event that temporarily alters the effectiveness of a reinforcer.Can cause a reinforcer to be more effective or less effective. Two most common demonstrations of motivating operations are:
Satiation refers to condition in which item or event has been used as a reinforce so many times that is loses its effectiveness and no longer functions as a reinforce or if someone just had access to an item or event, that item or event is less likely to function as a reinforcer.
Deprivation refers to time prior to a training session during which an individual does not experience or is deprived of a reinforcer.
Differential Reinforcement (DR): reinforcing a desired behavior while withholding reinforcement for an undesirable behavior.
DR of Incompatible Behaviors (DRI): alternate behavior that cannot be done at the same time as target behavior. For example, whispering instead of yelling, sitting instead of standing, putting hands in pockets instead of peers, holding pencil in one hand and hold eraser in other instead of picking nose.
DR of Alternate Behaviors (DRA): reinforcement of alternative behavior. For example, client using sign-language for break instead of yelling.
DR of Other Behaviors (DRO): providing reinforcement after a period of time when target behavior does not occur. For example, client walks down the hall without kicking anyone then RBT will allow client to use I-Pad.