Crisis of the ancient regime 1808-1814

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INDEPENDENCE OF LATIN AMERICA

                        Among The causes of the revolutionary crisis that matured from 1808 to 1810, the Decline of Spain under the inept Charles IV was certainly a major one.

In Europe, Napoleon gradually reduced France to a helpless Satellite. In 1807 French troops moved through Spain to invade Portugal.

By early 1810 French victory seemed inevitable. The Juntas that were previously in charge of Spain dissolved and named Cortes as Their ruler. Confident that the armies of the invincible Napoleon would crush All opposition, some creole leaders prepared to take power into their hands. And so with the imminent fall of Cadiz, this broke down a fight between Patriots and royalists.

Simón Bolívar became involved in a conspiratorial Activity to free Venezuela and in 1811 congress proclaimed the country’s independence. Fight had already broken down between patriots and royalists, With the patriot army in command of Francisco de Miranda. The fall of Napoleon In 1814 brought Ferdinand to the throne. On the eve of the decisive campaign of 1819, Bolivar summoned to Angostura a congress that vested him with dictatorial Powers. However the battle still had to be won. So after a strategic battle he Surprised and defeated the royalist’s army in Bogota.

In May 1810 a secret patriot society forced the Viceroy to summon a Congress who then disposed of him to start a junta in the Name of Ferdinand. This junta subdued the interior providences but couldn’t Take control over Uruguay and Paraguay. In 1813 a national assembly gave the Country the name of the United Provinces of La Plata, a declaration of Independence followed in 1816. In 1817 the army began its march to Santiago. In June 1821 the Spanish army evacuated Lima and retreated towards the Andes. San Martin withdrew in 1822.

There prince Joao in 1815 elevated Brazil to the legal Status of kingdom. In 1820 a revolution broke in Portugal that demanded the Immediate return of Dom Joao to Lisbon and the restoration of Portuguese Commercial monopoly. He accepted but left his son Dom Pedro as regent of Brazil. In December 1822, Dom Pedro was proclaimed constitutional emperor of Brazil, bringing the Independence to an end.

In 1808 news of Napoleon’s capture of Charles IV and Ferdinand VII provoked intense maneuvers among Mexican elites to take power. The peasantry and working class formed a spearhead to revolt. The capture of Guanajuato on September 28 was followed by the killing of hundreds of Spaniards. But even after he died, the insurrection that he had set in motion Did not stop. The group was taken by new leaders who change the tactics to Guerrilla warfare. This new tactic resulted in the exhaustion of the enemy. 

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