Material Truth: statement that is true because of the facts is called an empirical or material truth, that is, true because of experience , because of its content. A statement such as “There are no trees on the Doctor Marañón High School courtyard” might be false, that is, contingent (a contingent truth if it is true; a contingent
falsehood if it is false). We can imagine if someone were to cut down the remaining trees, then the statement would become true. As a general rule in philosophy, all empirical statements are, if true, only contingently true.
Formal Truth:“Truths of reason” are called formal or necessary truths for they could not possibly be false. Necessary is here the opposite of contingent: we can always imagine what it would be for a contingent truth not to be true; but cannot even make sense out of the suggestion that a necessary truth might not be true. Formal truths are true in any
possible world, “2 + 2 = 4” is a necessary truth, in that we cannot imagine (no matter
how imaginative we happen to be) what circumstances might make that statement false.
And the necessary falsehood “1 + 1 = 1” cannot be imagined to be true under any