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Classified in Social sciences

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1989 amendments to the constitution and changes

◦ The ayatollah dies so all things he did informally (above) are not institutionalized.

◦ Expediency council is institutionalized to avoid conflict between liberals and

conservatives. It increases the number of the expediency council (which has existed

before) but now becomes institutionalized. It expand the number of assembly of religious experts

Positive and negatives resulting in dependence of oil

Iran receives enough money to become disregard their internal tax bases, which in turn causes the Iranian state to become independent of society. Society has little input

because little taxation means little representation. Does not attract foreign investors. Oil allows Iran to not worry about feeding their population, so they could undertake

ambitious development programs. Oil finances 90 percent of imports and 80 percent of the annual budget. Instability of world oil market

Reasons economics have been poor in Iran since the 1979 revolution

◦ Difficulty of the transition

◦ It’s hard given foundations already there: the traditions, dependence on oil, lack of

allowance for progressiveness and diversity in the legislative process

◦ You need a range of educated people to create a diverse economic state

◦ Sanctions- they are isolated from the west since 1979. You must be apart of the west to diversify your economics to trade and develop

Goal of Rouhani with the Nuclear Deal. Suggest reasons the new president is pushing for the nuclear deal

◦ To become a modern, developed state and create a diverse economy.

Role of NGO's in Iran and foreign, domestic government sponsors

◦ NGO greatly would help social progressiveness

◦ Government sponsors ex Bonyads- a form of Islamic charity controlled by clerics. Most

powerful of these endowments is the Foundation of the Oppressed

Access the validity of claims of progressiveness and social policy, how reliable are claims of progress

◦ Iran had the second highest amount of sex changes surgeries in 2008; leader in cosmetic surgery (biggest nose surgery rate); Better gender equality than some countries; Birth control available

Misconceptions about shiism

◦ They are actually most open to debate; there is a difference between fundamentalism and shiasm that they do not pay zakat- but they do but their quran (religious text) same

Dual society: conservatives and liberals in policy making

◦ Conservatives - clerics, rural peasants. Institutionally they are guardian council, assembly of religious experts, and supreme leader. They are pushing for laissez faire economics

◦ Liberals- majlis, they represent the merchants and businessmen, their policies tend to be progressive reformists, and the opposite of laissez fair


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