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The PD is the science of concrete man, studied from the psychological point of view, is to provide an overview of its historical development, ie in their development (infant, child, youth, adult, ...). Describes how to move from one stage to the next and try to discover the links that unite: affection and intelligence.

It is therefore a science of man considered as a unity of body and mind (learning, intelligence and affection). That's not the result of any ideology but is imposed by our object of study.

Therefore aims to study the concrete man from the psychological point of view and aspiration is to give an overview of historical development. We are interested, above all, the school years to learn to be with the child in order to educate.

Following Rogers, we'll all students and teacher, freedom, critique and creativity in order to discover the truth of the child in order to do justice, helping in its development and, thus, everyone in class will enjoy the beauty of having done .

Thus, our class, as well as Rogerian, is inspired by Maslow. Without following these two psychologists and counselors nor can our self or the child and with that term, self-actualization, Maslow referred to the full development, that is, according to truth, justice and beauty and Rogers refers to the free development, ie as freedom, thought, and the Declaration of Human Rights and our Constitution itself say that the purpose of education is the full and free development of personality.

This contrasts scientific way to proceed with the rule in our society of the opposite. Lying in place of truth, the manipulation is ranked the beauty and aggressive moves to justice. This phenomenon unfortunately present in all places, is now studied in the theory of bp (the market-mediolatría-partitocrática) to manipulate (as opposed to beauty), lies (contrary to the truth) and kills (against justice) set out in eight books at our disposal in the library. Indeed, markets, media and political parties have been in cahoots (you have agreed on someone or something) to exercise against all their will or desire for power, as Nietzsche calls it that always do your holy will against rights of others. Let us see what they tell us different scientific paradigms concerning children and their development.


I.2.1) Freud's psychoanalysis

The theories of Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, reflecting his training in biology and clinical experience. Neuropathology also investigated in the prestigious Paris neurologist Charcot, who was using the hypnosis to treat hysteria. Freud realized that many of the symptoms of his patients were due to affective factors. Found that adult neurotic patients had repressed their memories of emotional experiences in childhood that generally were related to sexuality.

Freud's sexuality to genital sexuality and emotional or physical and psychological, since the development of children and more than a teenager, is aimed at the union of bodies (genitals) and the union of hearts, a union of love (affection) .

Between these two aspects of Eros or libido or sexuality seems more decisive affectivity as evidenced, among others, the case of the transsexual. For this reason, doctors operate the body, changing sexual characteristics, body parts related to genitalia, to adapt to sexuality felt, the emotions, to what the person wants and loves to be.

Sexual experiences, in terms of genitalia and affection, so wealthy at his age, very early start (oral first year) and when they are unpleasant of them loses consciousness, then forget the unpleasant and are pushed to the unconscious.

Development of sexuality from birth, comes from Freud's theory that for him, how could it be otherwise, is a sexual development. That is, their development depends on and is always conditioned by the genital and affective experiences.

We say the same thing when we say that the main philosophy for our development and the child is love and the worst, the opposite, hatred. In Freudian language of love is called "Eros or life instinct" and hate calls "Thanatos or death instinct."

Consistent with all this, Freud proposed that the appearance of the stages of sexual development were basically determined by the maturity and mental life (mental or emotional) was the Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, only transformed. It emphasizes how the individual has to adjust to society while satisfying the drives, which are two: the life instinct or Eros and death instinct Freud called Thanatos.

Realize human development by observing the first genital and affective experiences of children that may influence later behavior. Freud's vision, therefore, was that from the earliest age, humans were motivated by the drive toward pleasure that unfortunately occurs in both Eros and Thanatos in. These impulses are an expression of the libido, sexuality or Eros is the life force or psychic energy, but the instincts of children inevitably conflict with the social demands forcing the child to alter their behavior to be accepted socially in the group.

Consequently, Freud proposed the existence of threeinstances in the personality: the id, ego and superego.

In this lies all the drives, what happens is that the person is usually unaware of these forces. In reality, therefore, the newborn, is pure id.

The ego begins to develop when the baby is about 6 months. It is the leading realistic behavior of dealing with things, is the arbiter, who decides whether a thing be done or not. Use memory, reason and the trial to make the eternal conflict mediator between what one wants to do, the id and what you should and should not do, the superego.

The superego is the psychological origin of moral consciousness and begins when the child exceeds the Oedipus complex and thus assimilates the values of parents and rules of conduct. Can see that there are rules to know what is good and what is wrong.

The theory of sexual development of Freud is a theory of stages linking the psychological development solutions to conflicts that characterize each stage of life. The five stages of sexual life are:

  • Oral: birth to 18 months. It focuses on the lips.
  • Anal: from 18 months to 3 years. The pleasure is in the anus.
  • Phallic: from 3 years to 6 years (Oedipus).
  • Latency: 6 to 11 years.
  • Genital: from puberty onwards (the baby arrives and the child rule ejaculate at night = pubertal stage, pubis).

Freud emphasized in his writings development in the first 3 stages of life (oral, anal and phallic). If these stages are too rewarding, or if the drives have not been met, the child will be set at that stage, which implies that the concerns of that stage will dominate his adult personality.

In the oral stage dominated customs related to that area, smoking, eating, ... that will last a lifetime.

Fixation on the anal stage is an excessive order or disorder or a mixture of both.

Freud saw that the third stage, the phallic, is the most important phase. The child develops a close relationship with the mother wanting to have it just for him. Want to marry her and get rid of his father whom he sees as a rival, but he loves his father and needs his protection, he fears that his powerful father to punish Castro for his impulses. The child resolves their conflicts by suppressing their desires and identify with the father. First, when there is a repression, not out of love of the mother involves not overcome the Oedipus and insert into the dynamics of personalityinstant gratification (pleasure it brings bad consequences) as a rule, an aberration, but if you identify with the father (with his standard) and accept the rule that the father and mother belong to the superego arises that involves being able to defer gratification, deferred satisfaction (no bad consequences).

The origin of the superego, of all moral rule is to defer, as altruistic and empathetic child, satisfaction, because otherwise, if it is driven by immediate gratification, such as narcissistic and egocentric child, his performance will have bad consequences .

To persist in the love of the father of the opposite sex, this instant gratification, it brings the bad consequences of staying fixed in the Oedipal stage, since it exceeds the Oedipus complex. It will be a narcissistic child according to Freud, self-centered, because it should defer gratification, but failed, directing his affections for a sexual supplement other than parents, that reaction developed enough so uncultured, introduces us to a dynamic of fixations and regressions among many other things avoca the child to homosexuality, which comes from identification with the parent of the opposite sex when he had done with the same-sex parent.

This is a definite significance for the child to develop freely and fully. If your habitual way of acting as self-centered narcissists do is instant gratification, what Freud called primary process Freud called secondary process leading to delayed satisfaction, the child will have to endure bad consequences for their actions, which is anti-educational as well as very problematic, but if it exceeds the Oedipus, their behavior will tend to meeting adjourned, the Freudian child process, and be free of the evil consequences. That's the polite boy, the empathic altruism. The poorly developed, which has brought bad, is the narcissistic ego.

Moreover, humanity stands on the incest taboo which is to prohibit sexual relations with parents and siblings. For Oedipus, the child enters genitally humanity by respecting their parents. That means identifying with the parent of the same sex and not hate him for being delivered to the parent of the opposite sex. This one can not be seen as rival, hate for it.

The child must consent also concerned that the father of the falls, the opposite sex, in all its intimacy belongs to same-sex parent. Postpone the satisfaction to know that until a person of the opposite sex outside the home belongs to it's personality structure politely, the same characteristic of altruism and empathy. How to pay that, as a good result, you will have to feel socially integrated in society and individual. It is free, not in love with the parent. Is not fixed, not tied to their parents as sexual objects a real hotbed of genital bad consequences. This child does not happen as the Oedipus of Sophocles' Greek myth who murdered his father to marry the mother without knowing it.

Following this stage is the period of latency. It is a phase of calm among the important phallic and genital stages. It is a moment in which the libido is almost asleep and not much happens.

Finally, comes the genital stage which marks the arrival of adult sexuality. In it, the child, elderly, find a person of the opposite sex not prohibited by the incest and the Oedipus who enjoy no bad consequences genital and emotionally. The deferred satisfaction has paid off. Such action Oedipal becomes the paradigm of all free and full development of the child. It becomes the paradigm of all polite behavior. You always have to postpone the satisfaction not to suffer bad consequences.


These concepts, immediate gratification and delayed, and is set forth below, are widely accepted concepts:

  • Past experiences affect personality later.
  • Early experiences may be distorted because the children may confuse dreams with reality or desire with reality and that is what most prevents normal development.
  • Many human motivations are unconscious.
  • The people face the anguish with strategies that are called defense mechanisms. Among them are:
  • Suppression = pushes thoughts and painful emotions to the unconscious.
  • Rationalization = where produce acceptable reasons to justify the unjustifiable.
  • Projection = is the mechanism by which we see an aspect of ourselves that we accept and what we see in others.

These four points of psychoanalysis, accepted by many people, are called into question by a current of thought that psychoanalysis removes the study of child development and even the same psychological science.

Historically, totalitarianism, which as we know, are what is deprived of freedom, critical and creative of Rogers to find out the truth is not fair and beautiful in Maslow, it forbade the strongest terms. The left-wing totalitarian communist-Marxist in Soviet Russia, forbade it. Similarly, the right-wing totalitarianism, the Hitler. In Argentina, Videla, transmuted to a Nazi-fascist Christian, pursued the psychoanalysts. Both had a deep, unspeakable reason to behave well. At 2 exposes them psychoanalysis. At 2 gives them anxiety and come to the defense mechanisms, therefore presumed to bring the solution of social, economic and political, but hide that eliminating the opponent made. For communists, the rival is the bourgeois and the Nazis, opponents are Jews and Bolsheviks. For the two rival is not like them. That's a fixation, a regression to the narcissism of the first 5 years, the paranoid-schizoid stage of Melanie Klein. Boast of perfection and are a pathological case.At least, they are people who use defense mechanisms to "carry water to his mill." As they consider their own right, gods, they demonize the other, because they have nothing good. It is a rationalization, defend the indefensible, but they know "sweeten the pill. Therefore, because psychoanalysis exposes them, forbids it and directs his aggression against him and who will save. Mask, then, its dislike (hatred) against psychoanalysis saying, among other things, that is not science and does not want to realize, because they are blinded by self-centered narcissism that its position scientistic. A misconception of science. NO respect for that psychology and psychoanalysis as it can not be neither as precise as physics or as precise as mathematics, because its object of study, the psyche or psyche, prevents it. Something similar happens to the weather which after the third day is not reliable in their predictions, but do not generally deny scientific status as the weather does not leave them exposed, not unmask them as psychoanalysis. It only does what he can build a theory of what they tell the analyst the analysands. In any case, be banned or accepted analytical method, we, as warned by the philosopher Bernard Henry Levi in "The Country" on 02.14.2010, we say that without psychoanalysis is not well known to do with the desire, the libido , the moods, the lapses and accidents of the unconscious or soul. In other words, life. That means maul the child and against his truth not describe Maslow impeding against Rogers, freedom, critical and creative of psychoanalysis. If any of you look pretty is, at best, an ideological distortion of the danger of which we cured in health practice by subjecting the ideology of Marx-Hitler to the science of Rogers-Maslow. We come and we are convinced as Espinoza, that desire is the nature or essence of things or, as Augustine says, that life consists in bringing the force of desire. Discover in the child not hold us accountable for that, when the child pay a heavy price for not educating you desire, let us responsible, because, as Heraclitus said: "It is difficult to fight against the desire, for what you want to pay it price of life. "

Indeed, to cure hysterical women, sick because of desire, psychoanalysis emerges, whose germ is a work entitled "Studies on Hysteria" published by Freud and Breuver. The latter, tried a very interesting case known as "Anna O". This girl, very intelligent, had multiple symptoms: strabismus, paralysis of three members, contractions, tendency to split personality ... Breuver discovered that the patient is relaxed if he was the source of their symptoms, thus, be appeased, and came to disappear. We are therefore facing a new method of psychology is the psychology of sign, next to medicine and known to the people: "For the thread gets the ball," or "smoke you know where is the fire, smoke jealousy born of affection. If there is no love, no jealousy. The smoke is a sign of fire. If smoke is because there is fire and if there is jealousy is because there is love.

Stendhal and Flaubert, the writers who know the psychology of love, in the twentieth century say the same. Let us quote as shown in Stendhal's phrase: "The truth is in the details." Threshold even acknowledges that the work of Stendhal is explained by the details: "Stendhal, who knew so many tricks of the novel, does not give the time by dates but by symptoms" and all the work of threshold is also true, that of a memorial about everything by symptoms, for details.Freud himself would say: "Never underestimate the small signals." Sherlock Holmes said: "You already know my method is based on the observation of trifles," ie, the symptom, the detail, the small signal, the trifles are the best method to know the emotional reactions and the child through of them. In this method, that talk about their symptoms, Anna O called it "talking cure" or "chimney-sweeping" (remove the soot). In analysis is called catharsis. In these talks, Breuver he devoted an hour a day for a year and finally fell in love with each other and Breuver terminated the treatment because Anna O had a hysterical pregnancy.

Freud, then, began to change its method. Stopped using hypnosis because some patients were not hypnotized, and began to use as a method of healing the "talking cure" for the patient to recall the origin of their symptoms.


Started: Methodologically it is good to talk first of Freud in studying the affective, the largest in the psyche. Then, you must explain to their intelligence to discover Piaget, structuring the second aspect of child development. Third, we will enter later in learning, the third feature in transcendence of the psychic life of the child. The other three aspects are reduced or they can be investigated. So, let's talk now of Piaget.

Jean Piaget was born and educated in Switzerland,. Small was a keen observer of animal behavior and became interested in knowledge and how it is acquired. At that time, American psychologists were influenced by the evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin, but Piaget was inspired by Henry's creative evolution Berson. He went to Paris and earned a place in the laboratory of Alfred Binet. While working there, began to become more interested in the children's incorrect answers than correct and, therefore, invented a method that consisted of presenting structured problems as a standard to children of different ages. Then they were asked to explain his answers and his explanations sounded with a series of questions carefully designed. In this method is called clinical method, and then critical method. Shortly after completing his work in Paris, took an appointment as director of research at the Jean Jacques Rousseau Institute in Geneva, Switzerland, where he lived until death. With data from this research constructed a theory of knowledge, the child's intelligence, noting that the child was active in his knowledge of the world. As the child develops the mind through a series of organizational phases. After each of these, the child stands at a higher level of psychological functioning through its intelligence. Cognition or knowledge, then, is a biological process spontaneous. Thus, Piaget gave the name of this approachgenetic epistemology, which covers the development of intelligence, forms of knowledge throughout the life cycle. For Piaget, all knowledge comes from action. Children act on the objects around him, the feel, the turn around, beat the suck. Knowledge, then, the baby does not come or the object itself or the baby, but the interaction of both. As you said Kant, "knowledge is made of what they give me and what I wear" or what is the same, the child is constructive, builds their knowledge to put something on the order announced in the following sense. Through the so-called accommodation, approaches the object and see what it is. Approaches, for example, a new door of a different color and larger or smaller or other characteristics of other known and by assimilation compares the new door with all the schemes of things known. When the object is now is like another well known, when now it is treated as before, knowledge is produced. This object is equal to other gates known, then it is a door. The child has just proved he's smart, adapting to reality, to use to leave or enter the door. Well, the intelligence to Piaget's adaptation, two moments are perceived logical, if difficult to differentiate between themselves: assimilation and accommodation.

Children come to understand the effects of simple and ordinary shares, in this case approaching the door, watching, moving the handle ... It is because the child is active in his knowledge. Learn as much to coordinate their actions, can not throw and roll an orange at a time, but can feel it first and then throw it or make it roll. Grab, throw and roll are examples that Piaget called schemas. Schemas are patterns of action that are involved in the acquisition and structuring of knowledge. Action schemes are the way of knowing the child, and babies are like concepts without words, but also have developed patterns of action are mental operations. It allows them to manipulate objects mentally, classify and understand their relationships. The intelligence of the child passes through four stages and the organization of behavior is qualitatively different. The two essential parts are:

  • The stages emerge in a constant order of succession.
  • Neither heredity nor environment alone can explain the progressive development of mental structures.

The four stages are:

Stage 1: Stage of sensor-motor intelligence. Is a stage which is more or less than 0-18 months to two years (24 months), then the cognitive development begins soon after birth with the first application of the reflexes of the newborn and, when finished, the child has a story rich and complex schemes with which organizes trade adjustment between the subject and object. This stage is therefore a profound lack of differentiation between self and object, self centered, relative to differentiation of self to the object and acquires major achievements during this period with regard to objects, to time, space, causality, imitation and play.Therefore, the information and adapting the child to reach him through the senses, actions and body movements. So the best way to promote intelligence is that the child is surrounded by many objects you can touch and move with ease. In addition, children at the end of this period, they begin to record the experiences symbolically. We are at the dawn of representative thought, that is, children think about things and people that are not present.

Stage 2: Stage preoperational. More or less than 18 months or 24 months to 6 years. It begins when the child has the ability to make representations. The characteristics of this period are: egocentricity, realism, animism and artificial.

  • Egocentrism: the child is that he is and the object. No difference between desire and object. Put another way, things are as he thinks them, feel them or wish, that is, their perspective, their way of seeing things is the only possible. There is another perspective. This feature is egocentrism makes the thought of this child is a wishful thinking, that is, not surprisingly, does not conform to reality or distorted thinking that is noted in the description that we do of the other features of this period.
  • Realism: the child is convinced that psychological facts are there, that is, the child believes. Realism is a consequence of the child to be egocentric.
  • Animism: the trend is contrary to realism. As for egocentrism believes that only his perspective is better, then, as he is animated, as he has life, think logically, that the objects and the physical facts are the same attributes that have it as a biological-psychological. These attributes are: life, consciousness, will.
  • Artificialism as the child is doing things a certain way, is convinced by his self-centeredness, physical phenomena, objects, events in the world, man has made for special purposes.

As we have said, the selfishness, the main characteristic of preoperational child's intelligence may be stored, unfortunately, throughout life, hence ripening, a development, a development according to Piaget, is characterized mainly by putting in direct contact the child with objects and situations to know how they are. This requires continuous teacher and student discipline to see the objects in its logic, not from a particular egocentric perspective. Demands to see the truth Maslow fair and beautiful with the method, always use the discipline of critical and creative freedom of Rogers, the opposite of the market-mediolatría-partitocrática (bp) that manipulates, lies and kills, and totalitarianism Marx and Hitler. This means that the child leaves their own perspective, their own vision and call things with the concept that really define. That means stop usingpreconceptions, which are words to talk about the reality-centered, not in reality the object but in the way we see it. Therefore, the self according to Piaget is impossible without each child from his idea about the object than do the others, seeing the true meaning of words. As we have been saying, if no class venture, well because we have no class.

3rd Stage: stage of concrete operations. From age 7 until 10 to 11 years. This is the stage of concrete operations as the child is unable to construct a logical when it is detached from the action. This logic is specifically linked to the manipulation of objects and has no place independently of them. For example, in an experiment with clay beads that change shape, the child at this stage (not before) agree that there is the same amount of paste whatever form. I say this because you are manipulating and can always return to the primitive form.

Stage 4: formal operations stage. From age 11-12 onwards. This is the stage of formal operations, formalize something abstract. The child thinks with abstract categories. Takes place with a progressive improvement of the concrete logic of concrete operations. The child becomes able to set up formal or logical operations-abstract. It verifies the logical step of the formal operations manipulative. The child then operates with signs that separates reality, achieving independence of perception and representation. The most characteristic feature is the hypothetical-deductive reasoning, because to know the facts hypothesized. Reasoning with propositions such as: "If this happens ... then such a thing happen."

I.2.3) Neopiagetian MODELS

I.2.3.1) Selman

The theory of the stages of Selman includes the development of children's relationships with peers. There are four stages:

Stage 1: Stage impulsively. Up to 4 years. At this stage children can not distinguish between actions and emotions, between objects and desires, and do not understand that others interpret the same behavior differently. For these children, the conflict with the other person is resolved by the impulsive use of force: beating, shaking and beating.

Stage 2: Stage unilateral. It ranges from 4 to 9 years. They know that others may have different opinions about the same action, but still can not simultaneously consider their own perspective with the other. Resolve conflicts trying to control the other person. For example, intimidating or commanding or passively submit to the power of another.

Stage 3: Stage reciprocal. Ranging from 6 to 7 years to 12 years. Children leave their own vision and take what the other person has about their thoughts and actions, and can appreciate both points of view, but unrelated. His way of resolving conflicts is through negotiation, through exchange.

Stage 4: Stage of collaboration. From age 9 to age 15. Children can see themselves and others as actors and objects at once and are able to coordinate their perspectives with those of others. Solve problems by working with the other person, trying to adapt to meet the desires of each other.

Rogers defends freedom, criticism and creativity. The child, through empathy, must know that without freedom, criticism and creativity can not be made and, therefore, the other person is also entitled to be free, critical and creative so you can self-realization. And Maslow defends truth, justice and beauty. Therefore, when a problem arises we must be able to express our ideas and take into account those of others, and all of them, choose the best, only then can the collaboration, education, democracy, ...

I.2.3.2) Kohlberg

Kohlberg believed that emotional development, emotional development, cognitive and parallel to the stage of child's cognitive development determines the level of social cognition of it. In fact, saying that, fulfilled the work of Piaget concerning the development of moral reasoning and trial and suggested that moral reasoning through six stages. Each successive stage is constituted on the basis of the above. Each stage indicates a greater ability to adopt the role of the other person and each one of them, children see moral issues in a different way (as with the four stages of Piaget, the truth is a way depending age and equal justice.) The six steps proposed are three basic levels of moral reasoning development is distinguished by what they define as good and moral action.

This moral reasoning in the First Level: pre-moral level, it serves the values that reflect the external pressure (if my dad doing something punishing me, then do not do it and do not punish me, I do). In the 1st phase, seeks to avoid punishment, and in the 2nd, serves its own needs and interests.

The Second Level: Conventional level, the child appreciated securities (something to fight) that reflect the expectations of others and the need to maintain social order. InStep 3 tries to be good for him and others and in the 4th stage is occupied by the supreme value to avoid breaks in its environment, its social system.

In the Third Level: The level of Principles, the values for the child are those related to shared principles and rules. In the 5th stage, is not unmindful of their obligations to share with others and in the 6th stage, takes into account the universal moral principles.

I .2.4) Behaviorism

Freud, Piaget and the neo-Piagetian, provide for the development, whether matured or psychodynamic, focusing primarily within the individual. Developmental psychologists who opt for the approach to learning, see that the main influences from the outside. They believe the experience or learning is the cause of forming the personality of the child. Where, in accordance with all this, psychologists explain the development through the theories of conditioning, are interpreting developmental changes in terms of learning to associate an event with another, either through classical conditioning or operant conditioning.

The founder of Watson's classical conditioning and operant conditioning, Skinner.

Classical conditioning: Watson says that we learn, we develop, because we associate several times a stimulus with a response. For example, we associate with 4 2x2 and repeated, we learn. Classical conditioning arose over the work of Pavlov in Russia (1927).

Pavlov demonstrated that some types of behavior, called reflexes, were responses to external stimuli. A natural response (something is sweet and you notes, for example, a cake is sweet, so sweet relations), to specific stimuli, unconditioned reflexes Pavlov called. For example, we close the eye when we go into a puff of air into the eye. Another example: when the teacher is talking and looking to the notes, students copied. Other examples that gave the name Pavlov conditioned reflexes are learned by associating (what the bp that manipulates, lies and kills) a neutral stimulus (a stimulus that should not produce a response) such as a bell or light and an unconditioned stimulusas food. Examples: Paulov salivation measured reactions to food in a dog's nose, which was considerable, while very little saliva under the stimulus of sound. Then began the test of conditioning. She rang the bell (neutral stimulus), and immediately presented to the animal food (unconditioned stimulus), with a very short interval. He repeated this pair of stimuli often for several weeks when the dog was always hungry. Then, after several days, he played only the hood and the salivary response appeared to hear the sound, although the food was not given (because the sound did presage that dinner was about to appear). The response had been conditioned to a stimulus that previously had been unable to produce it. Now suppose someone sounded a bell and then run a focus that hurts the eyes when it happens several times eyes close whenever you hear the doorbell, but no light appears (with a beep should not close our eyes but we have been conditioned to it, that sound has been associated with something that hurts and, therefore, close our eyes). The Market-mediolatría-partitocrática (bp) we handled without us noticing. Associate what they want with what they want. The child begins to mourn when you see the nurse who has played several times.

Another behavioral or better neobehaviorists is Skinner. He is the founder of operant conditioning and suggested that the behavior can be shaped in almost any shape providing a systematic strengthening of reinforced first. For example, the behavior of a hungry pigeon, giving her some food only to do some voluntary movement in the desired direction. So if we want to go to a door, reinforce positive from the first steps toward her. The configuration of the behavior in accordance with these principles is called operant conditioning behavior modification. Therefore, the cases of positive child behavior are reinforced through praise, candy, money, ... that can be redeemed for prizes and if you do not do what should we put a face or any gesture of displeasure. Thus, it negatively reinforce their inappropriate behavior. Today the child, like all of us, is subject to constant operant conditioning of the bp that manipulates, lies and kills. He was treated as an object to feed the desire for power of all that fabric. They even lie in the textbooks and the responsibility to make this happen lies with the governments.

I.2.5) Ethology

A group of naturalists who observed the development of animals in their natural environment, not in laboratories, have taken Darwin's ideas and methods of behavioral biology to the field of developmental psychology. Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen, who initially worked with animals, were the pioneers of this form of study of behavior. They received the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1973. Human behavior, the child may be better understood from the ethological point of view by the way that enables infants, children and adult survival and growth in an environment similar to that developed our species. When the psychiatristJonh Bowlby examined the link between mother and son found it to be part of the system of behavior that evolved to protect the developing organism. Human babies are helpless and their survival depends on protection of adult members of the species. Therefore, infants' attachment to their caregivers enhances survival.

Or ethologists ethologists believe, for example, that the baby's smile, her grace and her cries act as reinforcer. Indeed, Darwin was the first to point out that the baby's smile trigger feelings of happiness in the caregiver and this would be a response that tends to keep close to the caregiver, and Lorenz noted that adult animals responded to taking care of puppies. In fact, many people respond to the graces of babies and puppies with a desire to catch them and hug them.

The ethologists have also discovered important affinities (similarities) in the social behavior of humans and their closest relatives, the primates. These groups have consistently dominant hierarchies which is distributed to its members according to the dominant or submissive role, and children ascend dominance hierarchy through physical attack, threat or fight for the object. Ethological theories suggest, therefore, that human development can best be understood by observing the behavior as part of the product of the evolution of our history. Precisely for this reason, approach to behavioral theories of Freud and Piaget who agree with that principle that ontogeny (our Development) which is the development of the individual recapitulates phylogeny (development of the human species) which is the development of mankind. Therefore, the child's development (ontogeny) gives the same steps taken by humanity in his (phylogenesis).


Not all theories are characterized by cognitive stages. Cognitive theorists who adopt the approach of information processing see human beings as symbol manipulators. They believe the children process as does another manipulator of symbols, the computer. Both take the information from the outside, record information in a symbolic way, the code, combine it with other information, stored and sent back to the world, but encrypted. A difference of Piaget's theory of data processing does not see significant changes in the structure of the mind as the child grows and, therefore, the growth processes include only recognition, rapid visual abstraction of the environment, analysis of sensory events, and when the basic skills increase with experience, these processes become faster and more efficient. Therefore, when the children read, decode the words they see on paper and understand what they have been codified, although there is little space to understand their meaning. As these processes take place, children build a rich network of concepts and knowledge about how things are done. Today, many development studies used this approach to information processing. Although they were once confined to issues of cognitive development, some researchers have used in the study of personality and social development. For example, a study of aggressive children encode the intentions of other children with much greater precision than boys peaceful and often hostile intent code where there is none.


Vygotsky was a contemporary of Piaget which criticized for not giving enough importance to the influence of environment for child development, he said, historical and social changes affect the behavior and development and thus the invention of printing, cars, computers and television can alter our world view.

Vygotsky created his sociohistorical theory in the Soviet Union where he lived a political climate that required thinking about a theory of human behavior that was Marxist and socialist dialectic. Vygotsky's sociohistorical theory provides for the development in terms of activity and social interaction and, consequently, development becomes a process of acquiring culture. Thus, the key to understanding the mental processes can be found in settings where children act, as researchers have discovered that social contexts affect the way people make use of cognitive skills.

Vygotsky's vision on the process of social interaction led him to emphasize the importance of what he called zone of proximal development (ZPD). This area is the area where children, with the help of an adult or another child's best talent, resolve problems that could never solve by themselves. The aid, therefore, enables him to assimilate knowledge. It is the only good learning, because it forces development.

I.2.8) ECOLOGICAL MODELS: Brofenbrenner

He developed his ecological theory as a response to the fact that much of development studies were isolated children from their natural settings. Urged (requested) for researchers to abandon the development out of context and begin to study children where they lived in their homes, neighborhoods, schools, ideologies, ...

Looked at the ecological environment as a system of four structures ranging from the nearest stage (household, family) to the most remote of the larger culture.

The internal structure, the microsystem, is the system that surrounds the child immediately. Includes, therefore, the family, day care, church, school, playground, ... Each microsystem includes people present and the physical and symbolic features of the site [for example, that schools are decent, which the desks are in good condition, ...]. He also suggested mesosystem name is one in which there are interrelations between the various microsystems. Therefore, the link mesositemas scenarios that include the child. However, the third structure, the exosystem, lists the scenarios that affect the child, but not included. What happens to the parents at work often affects their attitude at home. If the mother has just received a promotion respond differently than if you had a trifurca with the boss. The last and most broad structure affects child development is the macrosystem. The macro systems are composed of social classes, ethnic groups or religious communities, regions or individuals who share a belief system, values and lifestyles similar. During the last decades in the U.S. has developed the macro-family detached or two-income families or dual-career marriages.


Finish the question of methods and paradigms of developmental psychology is saying it is the teacher who decides what method or paradigm is going to help you better understand the development of the child, their life cycle. This teacher goes to the psychoanalysis of Freud to the emotional development, Piaget, to study the evolution of intelligence and behaviorism, in matters of learning. The remaining complement these three fundamental paradigms. In fact, the more immature child has been described by Freud in his narcissism, where self-centeredness by Piaget and who manipulates, lies and she is aggressive with him is the bp that uses and abuses of the stimulus ? response to fuel their desire behaviorism power, their immediate gratification. They say, for example, that Marx and Hitler are some beautiful people or whatever Rajoy and Zapatero are good and swallows it. They condemn the child's immaturity prevent him from being himself.

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