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Post-modern states text: Characteristics of post-modern world: - The breaking down of the distinction between domestic and Foreign affairs. - Mutual interference in (traditional) domestic affairs and mutual surveillance the rejection of force for resolving disputes and the Consequent codification of rules of behaviour. These rules are self-enforced. Noone compels states to obey CFE (Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe) limits. They keep to them because of their individual Interest in maintaining the collective system. In the same way the judgments of The European Court of Justice are implemented voluntarily, even when they are Disliked, because all EC states have an interest in maintaining the rule of law. -The growing irrelevance of borders: this has come about both through the Changing role of the state but also through missiles, motor cars and Satellites. Changes of borders are both less necessary and less important. -Security Is based on transparency, mutual openness, interdependence and mutual vulnerability. /A difficulty for the post-modern state – though one that goes beyond the scope Of this paper – is that democracy and democratic institutions are firmly wedded To the territorial state. The package of national identity, national territory, A national army, a national economy and national democratic institutions has Been immensely successful. Economy, law-making and defence may be increasingly Embedded in international frameworks, and the borders of territory may be less Important, but identity and democratic institutions remain primarily national. These are the reasons why traditional states will remain the fundamental unit Of international relations for the foreseeable future, even though they may Have ceased to behave in traditional ways. /The EU is the most developed example Of a post-modern system. It represents security through transparency, and Transparency through interdependence. /Outside Europe, who might be described As post-modern? Canada certainly; the USA up to a point perhaps. The USA is the More doubtful case since it is not clear that the US government or Congress accepts Either the necessity and desirability of interdependence, or its corollaries of Openness, mutual surveillance and mutual interference to the same extent as Most European governments now do. /What in Europe has become a reality is in Many other parts of the world an aspiration. ASEAN,6 NAFTA,7 MERCOSUR,8 even The OAU suggest at least the desire for a post-modern environment. /Advice for Post-modern states: those who have friendly, law-abiding neighbors should not Forget that in other parts of the world the law of the jungle reigns. Among Ourselves, we keep the law but when we are operating in the jungle, we also Must use the laws of the jungle. /Important Fact for security of post-modern states: To become involved in a zone of chaos is risky; If the intervention is prolonged it may become unsustainable in public opinion; If the intervention is unsuccessful it may be damaging to the government that Ordered it. Towards a new diplomacy: Riordan Examines the Roles of new players, both governmental and non-governmental, and makes a case For the private sector taking on many traditional functions of embassies. But According to him governmental diplomacy continues to have an important role. It Alone can ensure democratic accountability and legitimacy in international Affairs. It must mediate disputes between NGOs and corporations, ensuring Constructive outcomes rather than zero-sum games. It must develop new ways to Deal with non-state actors and take advantage of their knowledge, information And experience, and to involve them in the policy and decision-making policies. In effect it must create a new form of global governance in which all Stakeholders are able to contribute constructively to the policy making and Implementation, but in practice governmental diplomacy will uniquely represent Democratic legitimacy and accountability.Public diplomacy will be essential to securing the aims of postmodern States. The new diplomacy will be more about promoting values and ideas.

Diplomacy vs FP: An instrument of FP for the establishment and Development of peaceful contacts between the governments of different states, Through the use of intermediaries mutually recognized by the respective Parties.The main Functions of Diplomacy are: External representation of state; Protection lives and promotion Interests of nationals abroad; Gathering information on local political and Economic situation; Identification of external state’s goals and objectives, as Well as policy implementation; Overall management of orderly relations between States; Establishing and renewing the rules and procedures which regulate the International system. 

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