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Chapter 1: Introduction to Media studies1.How we know what we know we learn in two Ways: Somatically & symbolically. Somatically What we know may be from first hand, unmediated experience. Symbolically what we know may come from someone, Something (Majority) This is mediated- the info came to us through some Indirect channel or medium   Before mass media Arrived they used – spoken and written messages, the problems with that was, The transportation, people changing stories and the speed at which messages Arrived · Mass media- address large audiences in many Locations with relative efficiency · Critical Media Studies: about the social And cultural consequences of that revolutionary capability. 2.Categorizing Mass Media Media includes Many aspects such as radio and internet · Mass media: communication technologies that Have the potential to reach a large audience in remote locations (A)Print Media · 1 st mass medium · German Printer Johannes Gutenberg invented the moveable –type printing press. It brought the prices for books and letters down. · This type of media allowed for things to be reserved for The future. For knowledge to be spread in different countries · USA started its printing press in 1607 where it usually Printed religious texts but later it changed. · Newspapers were at first unsuccessful until they got money And editors · 19th & 20th century – Rapid growth for Newspapers · After 1973 – it declined · Magazines had the same path as newspapers · 1741- US first magazine “American Magazine” · Present- eBooks and online reading changes things Dramatically. (B) Motion Picture and Sound Recording · Thomas Edison created the phonograph (1877) And kinetscope(1892) · His goal was to combine audio and video into a film for more Than one person to view · The first combination was talking pictures Or “talkies” oThe musical film – The Jazz Singer (1927) · This resulted in popularity in sound recording and record Industry · Profit from sound recordings > than Profits in sheet music Then there were many creations made for the combo to be Viewed oLong playing records to CDs to Mp3s. (C)Broadcast Media · Public airwaves changed the industry from physical Transportation · Radio- experimented with transmissions(1890) And scheduled broadcasts (1920) · Television was Connected with the radio as it also had the people from the radio to T.V · 1950 they both had huge demand in 2011 99% at least one Radio and 96.7% had least a TV · Two recent developments: satellite radio And cable and satellite TV · Both charge for content, require digital signal (D)New Media · Lev Manovich also states that new media is hard to define “new media are the cultural objects which use digital computer technology for Distribution and circulation” · Ex) eBook internet, websites · A question that comes up is whether one day this category Will include all media? · New media’s history begins with the Computer chip · The internet came so popular when people Found out you could send messages · From 10% (1995) to 78%(2011) adults use the Internet · TABLE 1.4à internet users 2.6% Increase over 2012 and 77% of US population 3.Living in Postmodernity· Post modernity: describes the historical period that Began in 1960s as the economic mode of production in most western societies FROM commodity-based manufacturing TO information based services  ·  The Key differences in modernity and post modernity o Modernity (1850-1960) 1. Monopoly (imperial) capitalism 2. Industrialism 3. Fordism 4. Manufacturing and production o Post modernity (1960= present) 1. Multinational (global) capitalism 2. Informationalism 3. Flexible accumulation 4. Marketing And public relations 4.Convergence· Convergence: the tendency of formerly diverse media to Share a common, integrated platform Before Media convergence could become a reality it had to pass two obstacles: 1. The noise associated w/ analog signals such as those Used in television and radio broadcasting generated message distortion and Decay over long distances Solution: Digitization- it reduced it by relying on bits than constant signal 2. Band width limitations prevented large data packets Involving images and video from being transmitted quickly and easily over a Communication channel Solution: improved Data transmitted quickly and easily over a communication channel. 5.Mobility ·Refers to the ease with which an object can be moved from Place to place6.Fragmentation · The “mass” in mass media usually means Large, undifferentiated, anonymous, and passive audience addressed by Television etc. · But the explosion of information in post Modernity has given way to cultural fragmentation o Fragmentation- A splintering of the consuming public Into ever more specialized taste cultures · The internet itself has many separations, it employs Tracking devices to track the customers preferences for a better experience on The internet7. Globalization · is a complex set of social, political, and Economic processes in which the physical boundaries and structural policies That work with nation for flexible worldwide social relations · For mass media, which are owned and controlled almost by Multinational corporations, globalization creates opportunities to bring their Cultural products to distant local markets · This brings fears of “cultural imperialism” 8. Simulation · according to Jean Baudrillard “is the generation by models Of a real without origin or reality: a hyper real” · America in particular is characterized by simulation:an Implosion of the image (i.E. Representations) and the real · Media endlessly produce and reproduce images of love, Violence, and family that no longer point or refer to some external reality. 9. WHY STUDY THE MEDIA? · Socialization- describes the process by which persons- both Individually and collectively- learn, adopt, and internalize the prevailing Cultural beliefs, values, and norms of a society · All social institutions are mediators, they contribute to Socialization · Language can be seen as symbols operating as filters10. What we learn · Mediated messages are comprised of content And form   · Content à informational aspect of the message, audiences are mostly Aware of the content o It does not have use-value or truth-value to be called Informational · Content is important when media has to Choose which topics are important and which are not · Content should have unpopular viewpoints that would cause A great scope with public · Overall, mass media socializes us to care about Certain things, have certain viewpoints and adopt particular attitudes towards Things 11. How We Learn · Form is the cognitive component of a Message, a way a message is packaged and delivered · Packaging of message = consequence of medium and genre or Class · The way a message is packaged affects how We process it- it trains us how to think · The way we interpret language is different From images · Marshall McLuhan said that the medium is the Message o Images are replacing texts 12. DOING CRITICAL MEDIA STUDIES· Critical Media Studiesàdescribe an array of theoretical perspectives which, Though diverse, are united by their sceptical attitude, humanistic approach, Political assessment, and commitment to social justice 13. Attitude: Skeptical · Most media tend to have their own way of Portraying the news for example · People who want to analyze carefully adopt an attitude of scepticism · This is not rejecting media but a form of hermeneutics Of suspicion: A mode of close analysis with a deep distrust of surface Appearances and “commonsense” explanations. 14. Approach: Humanistic · Media studies focuses on the humanities o It associate with a particular set of intellectual concerns and approaches to The discovery of knowledge o Media studies Emphasizes self-reflection, critical citizenship, democratic principles, and Human education oThe knowledge We get from media studies related to this is never complete, fixed, or finished 15. Assessment: Political · Critical Media Studies focus is on practical and political Implications of those findings and entails of judgement · Critical studies are concerned about whose interests are Served by media and how they relate to the power · Research in this form will relate to how media create, Maintain or subvert particular social structures and whether or not such Structures are just egalitarian 16. Ambition: Social Justice · Critical media studies likes to interfere and also Identify political injustices but also challenge them · It believes that scholars should have the goal of “ Improvement of the society” · They take part in groups like… Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR) 17. KEY CRTICIAL PERSPECTIVES · There are 12 critical perspectives each comes from a Different social theory · Theory: an explanatory and interpretive tool That simultaneously enables and limits our understanding of the particular Social product, practice, or process under investigation · Kenneth Burke notes no theory is w/o limitations

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