Classified in Geography

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INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: Fundamental changes occurred 1760-1850 in: Agriculture, Economic policies, Textile and mental manufacture, Transportation And Social structure (people started to go to the city for work) //The late 18th century and the early 19th century brought to fruition the ideas and discoveries of those who had Long passed on, such as, Galileo, Bacon, Descartes and others. // The most important of the changes That brought about the Industrial Revolution were - The invention of machines To do the work of hand tools - The use of steam, and later of other kinds of Power, in place of the muscles of human beings and of animals; and -The Adoption of the factory system //John Kay invented the flying shuttle in 1733 and James Hargreaves the spinning jenny 31 years later. // By 1800 a host of New and faster processes were in use in both manufacture and transportation. // This relatively sudden change in The way people live deserves to be called a revolution. It differs from a political Revolution in its greater effects on the lives of people and in not coming to An end, as, for example, did the French Revolution. // Instead, the Industrial Revolution grew more powerful each year As new inventions and manufacturing processes added to the efficiency of Machines and increased productivity. // Building transportation systems: -Many canals were dug. They connected the main rivers and a network of Waterways for transporting coal and other heavy goods.-Early in the 19th Century à George Stephenson's locomotive and Robert Fulton's steamboat-They Marked the beginning of modern transportation on land and sea. Railroads called For the production of more goods, for they put factory‐made products within Reach of many more people at prices they could afford to pay.

// Many factors helped bring about this revolution in trade: 1. Old World trade routes 2. New World connection: European nations began To acquire rich colonies there and elsewhere. 3. New trade routes were opened 4. Strong central governments which replaced the feudal system. 5.Trading firms, Such as the British East India Company, were chartered by governments. 6. Larger Ships were built 7. Flourishing cities grew up 8. Large‐scale commerce could Not be carried on by barter, as much of the earlier trade had been. 9. Gold and Silver from the New World helped meet this need. 10. Banks and credit systems Developed. 11. By the end of the 17th century Europe had a large accumulation Of capital. 12. By 1750 large quantities of goods were being exchanged among The European nations, and there was a demand for more goods than were being Produced. 13. England was the leading commercial nation, and the manufacture of Clothing was its leading industry. // Changing conditions in England à The new methods increased The amount of goods produced and decreased the cost:-The worker at a machine With 100 spindles on it could spin 100 threads of cotton more rapidly than 100 Workers could on the old spinning wheels. -Southern planters in the United States were able to meet the increased demand for raw cotton because they were Using the cotton gin. -British merchants no longer found it a problem to obtain Enough goods to supply their markets. -Mills were closed and workers were Thrown out of employment. À Better transportation was needed à Thomas Telford and John MacAdam each developed a method of road construction better Than any that had been known since the ancient times.

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