utilitarian ethics bases right & wrong on the greatest happiness principle.This principle states that actions are considered moral when they tend to promote happiness & deter its opposite, and immoral when the opposite occurs.This principle was formulated by jeremy betham. Mill claimed that it is demeaning to reduce the meaning of life to pleasure.Utility is defined as pleasure itself,& the absence of pain.Happiness is a sign that we are exercising our higher faculties...When making a moral judgment on an action,utilitarianism thus takes into account not just the quantity but also the quality of the pleasures resulting from it. A pleasure is of higher quality if people would choose it over a differenr pleasure even if it accompanied by discomfort, and if they would not trade it in for a greater amount of the other pleasure.Mill wrote it is better to be a human dissatisfied than a pig satisfied.Mill defines happiness as pleasure and the absence of pain, and that it is the sole basis of morality...Act utilitarianism is defined as an act is right iff it result is as much good as any available alternative. rule utilitarianism on the other hand, is when an act is only right iff it follows correct rules to acchieve the greatesr # of goods for everyone. Lying to save a life is example. Mill defines morality as a system of rules that is protected by sanctions. Moral dilemma= 2 best friends, one cheating. Writers have said that mental pleasures are better than bodily ones, more permanent and inexpensive.. Hedonism= do what brings about the most bodily pleasure.Principle of utility=" we should acct always so as to produce the greatest good for the greatest #. I would follow rule///Kant argues that one should never tell a lie because it uses a person as a "mere means" which means to use them for your own benefit, w no thought to the interests or benefit of the thing you're using. Using someone in a plan of action in which they can't in principle consent to. Categorical imperative= act as you would want all other people to act towards all other people. Focus on actions done out of duty, not incitation. Our moral obligations. Hypothetical imperative=declare a possible action to be practically necessary as a means to the attainment of something else that one wants. Knt viewed morality more in terms of categorical imp. He believed that they are derived from pure reason.Universality principle="act only according to that maxim which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law without contradiction'. Maxim=rule or principle of action.////gilligan care reasoning-moral agent strives to be kind & foster caring relationships with others.Attentive, compassionate, values well beings of oters. Emotional sentiments, maintain connections, empathy & compassion.Justice reasoning= based on reasoing/logic/math. Focused on rights, autonomy and independence ,kantion. Heinz for caring-find alternative, talk it out,payment plan,loan.For justice-life is greater than property doesnt hesitate. Wife ill needs med, pharmacist doesnt donate.///virtue theory is ethical theory that emphasizes an individual's character rather than following a set of rules. Proper functioning=everything has a function & a thing is good to the extent that it fulfills its function, and bad to the extent that it doesnt. Having virtue= doing the right thing at right time,right way, right amount, toward right people. Vice deficiency (cowardice)--virture golden mean (courage)---vice excess(recklessness). Courage in this cse would be to find the right way to act. Virtue is a skill that can only be learned through experience. Eudamonia= a life well lived. Human flourishing. Virtues are character traits=courage,honesty loyalty temperance,justice, prudence. An act is right iff it is what the virtuous person would do.Act centered=focus on identifying procedures for determining moral obligations.Agent centered, focus on long term patterns of actions. Hypothetical imperative-treat others w respect if u want same. Based on perceived consequence. Cat. Impera, no consideration given to consequence. Golden rule-act towards others as you wold want them to act towards you. Cultivating moral virtues= practice virtues from young age. Have habit of practice. According to DOFM virtue is the mean state toward good activities and a virtuous person behaves appropriately out of his mean state.