Distance from departure to destination 95 nm

Classified in English

Written at on English with a size of 32.27 KB.

 

The narrative verbal icon /2

A map to the journey in narratives

A brief overview of the history of narration

  • phase 1: Mythic narration = „histories” of the world. Very ancient stories, which are signs of the thinking man. They are a kind of documentation about how people think. This was the narrative of fictitious cultures. The heroes were divine beings, outstanding humans who were able to do things which others are unable to.
  • phase 2: High Mimetic narration = immitating a culture which is superior to another, connecting the stories with historical facts. The producers of heroic epics found a tradition and storytellers followed them. (primary=oral, secondary=written). The journeys of Odysseus and Aeneas belong here. The focus is on the journey made by the characters (mostly without), outside the fictitious world.
  • phase 3: Romantic narration. (not in the sense in which we use it in everyday life. Here romantic doesn’t mean a love story or a progressing relationship between two people). The main characters of Medieval Chivalric romances were knights. The backbone of the muthos was the quest which involves travelling, going somewhere because you are looking for something. The inner journey of the knight is rare. It existed in the 16th century. We can realise the journey and very important life events.
  • phase 4: Low mimetic narration. This is what we associate with realistic fiction. The form is the novel. The average person becomes the normal. The bourgeois (non-heroic) epic. They have a documentary style to show things the way they are. Ordinary elements are important. They are full of tiny details about everyday life. Travelling is a dominant activity of the muthos. Sometimes travelling is the basis of the novel. E.G.: D.Defoe, Robinson Crusoe, J.Swift, Gulliver’s travels, L. Sterne, A sentimental journey, H. Fielding, Tom Jones
  • phase 5: modern, postmodern narration -> a strong tendency to the within, moving along in the inner space. More and more time and space is devoted to the inside, what the characters learn. In the 20th century plot structures cannot tell what is happening, every happening takes place inside the characters. The stress is on the characters, how they realize things and react to them, what kind of pains they are suffering from. The journey without is barely measurable. (E.G. V.Woolf, Kew Gardens; Kafka, Metamorphosis) At this time, storytelling is the most popular way of literature.

The narative as a verbal icon                                 

  • Literary works are verbal icons, because they are made up of language and show an image of life. It is a different thing, how every narrative realises that.
  • We interpret the text as a vehicle, we can make steps to understand it.
  • A text is an icon, an image of a thought.
  • The icon is one unit but composed of more elements.
  • The perceptible shape (layout/skhéma) is the first thing we can see. According to the text’s longness or shortness, we can conclude whether the journey will be long or short. We can also draw the conclusion from the shape of the text. It can be a continuously narrated „road” or divided into stops (A Rose for Emily, which has important stations and we should read the story accordingly.)
  • The fictional inner form (morphé)

There are techniques of reading.

  1. Narratology (French): text as a signifier: signs are arranged into a meaningful structure (Roland Barthes’ theory, narrative sequences). The text is an arrangement of codes. The prospective/proairetic code contains a piece of information that points forward. (The rose in A Rose for Emily refers to Miss Emily buying poison and the smell from the house. It is a structural element, because you buy poison to use it for something. It contains an information gap, because if there is a smell, there is something behind it.) The function of prospective signs: we are looking for these road signs because we want to know the answer for certain things.

Retrospective (hermeneutic code): solves an enigma, answers a question, then we learn why things happen. (In the closing scene, going back to Emily’s bedroom, people find things which point backwards)

Texts can be classified according to whether they have an ending with a hermeneutic code, then they are readerly and if they lack it, they are writerly. Texts often end without a solution, then we have to end the story. It is common int he postmodern mentality where there are no answers. You also have to write on the stories of the avantgard.

  1. Poestics of fiction (Russian): text as a signified: focuses on the inner text space. Metaphor is used as an instrument in the inner fictitious world. The basic resemblance to start from is that life is a journey. Reading is a mapping activity. The plot structure is the focus, what characters do, we join the them on their journey of life, we look at their movements in space and time.

Morphé: what the text looks ike from inside. The journey made in a fictional space/world refers to the shape of the road taken by the characters’ movement. There is measurability in space and time, a from and to movement with a departure and destination, distances taken horizontally and vertically. The movement in the inner (psychological, mental) space, the journey within is a cognitive, psychological movement. Somebody is not the same person in the beginning and in the end, characters change. At the departure, they don’t know what will happen. The aim of the journey is to gain experience and learn.

Mapping the inner text space

Roadsigns are to be followed by the reader.

  1. Leading micro-elements: they are recurrent, they return time after time and show you the way to the destination. It does matter where they appear in the text. They are symbolical, they have organizing force, and create a pattern, so they are of high significance.

e.G. (1) in Somerset Maugham’s String of Beads Miss R’s adventure with the pearls can be read. The first road sign is a string of pearls, the second is a divergence with beads, their likeness is very important. It turns out that there are two strings. Pearls and beads are the two vehicles but the tenors are difficult to find. The stations are London and Paris, they look identical but they have different meanings (horizontal). Social significance is a vertical movement in her life. The rising and falling of this recognizable character is also involved in her adventures.

e.G. (2) in A Rose for Emily, Miss E. Has a place of departure and a place of destination, she moves in space. We are in the southern historical sphere with slaves. Jefferson is a public sphere, the house is a private sphere. But we move to the absolute private sphere. We are supposed to interpret what she does. Parts of her certain activities can be interpreted to the happening sin the South. Everything happens inside the house. The dianoia is between the house and the owner.

e.G. (3) Hemingway, Cat int he Rain: the couple’s journey of life, marriage as a journey. The station is the Italian city, the roadsigns are rain and cat. There are returning elements which seem to organize the story which are to be connected.

B) other micro-vehicles are scattered all over the text, they may be connected to diverse dimensions (space, time, psychology). They don’t obey any systematic logics.  They can help with the localization of the tenor. They illuminate the thought structure (dianoia). In D. Parker’s Standard of Living, the girls’ identical looks are the phenomena of consumer society.

Faulkner’s taxation scene, he smell, the negro servant are all elements which mean more than a simple fact in the story.

Spatial and temporal circumstances of the journey

  1. spatial circumstances:

a) simply a setting for the action, with the importance of opening scenes. Setting can be geographically extant or nonexistant (unmappable). Geographically unlocatable settings are fictions which cannot be shown ont he map. The creations have special meanings. Geographycally locatable settings can be found ont he map, but the details are fictions. Real elements run parallel with the idea. It isn’t accidental that the girls go to Fifth Avenue and the typical honeymoon place is Venice.

It is symbolical in Miss E’s house in Jefferson that every house is modernized but E’s not. Its falling apart let us guess about the state of Emily.

b) stressed significance: when leading or simple micro-element. Spatial details have extra meanings. There is a close relation between personality and place. Motifs are also embedded int he place of ideology.

  1. Circumstances of time (the dual concept of time)
  2. cyclical (similar to the Odyssey-type of journey in space, repetition)

e.G.(1) the contrast between nature and human life: summer=youth, autumn=ageing, winter=death, spring=birth.

e.G.(2) the cycle of life

It might have sg to do with the interpretation of a text.

  1. linear: the succession of past->present->future, time as having a direction realized by history, from prehistorical time to the end (of recorded time).

In the empirical field, the the circumstances of time are cyclical, when there is no sense of the passing of time (timelessness, standing in one place, characteristic for mythical time). In the case of the linear, there is a ’from-to’ movement -> historical time.

Techniques of the presentation of time: the narrative time is simultaneous, the narrated time is an extension. We can interpret flashbacks from the past, minute details from the present and the anticipation of an action from the future.

The combination of the spatial and temporal circumstances is the chronotope, like the spatialization/shaping of time-Gatsby’s house.

The narrative verbal icon /3

The recognition of the thought transferred by the plot: we read the text, understand what happens to people, what they do, but the meaning is sg other.

The elements of the plot can somehow make a mimetic relationship.

e.G.(1): The Standard of Living:

title: a station/standing in life

If we define it ourselves, it means a station, how you actually live but it’s a vertical position, how high you can climb or how low you can sink. There are two spaces, the real and the jocular (the space where their imaginary game takes place). Movements made without: walking inside NYC, daily routines (going to work, eating lunch, going for walks, meeting guys). Movements made within: is there any internal distance that they cover? We look at their characters at the end of the story. Int he jocular space: they are members of a cultural community, wear special clothes, but they will never have a million dollars. The author is sarcastic, but we can feel her pity. One little distance, a step made forward: 1 million dollars become 10 million dollars.

e.G.(2): A Rose for Emily:

Journey made without: Miss E’s circular outings. She starts from the houses and she returns. Her movements are just in and out of the house. But there are movements, at least by the servant. Miss Emily is stuck in time and space, she has the only place in Jefferson where time doesn’t seem to pass, the house is getting older and older, while the whole city is developing. Journey made within: we don’t know anything about her inside world, only her reactions, attitudes, the way she’s actually sticking to dead bodies. Her stations: death of father, meeting Homer Barron, developing a short affair,  enclosure (locks herself up in the house). In the last scene, the pieces of mosaic seem to click together.

e.G.(3): Hemingways’ iceberg technique: there is a sequence of actions but not all details are revealed. He only mentions the tip of the iceberg, we have to find out what under the surface is. He offers only certain hints.

Cat in the rain: there are short distances (room-street-room, bed-mirror-window), only a few characters, who are stuck in a hotel room. There is a contrastive parallel: we can realise from the couple’s little conversations that there are vast distances between them. You are invited to complete the missing information, to think.

The concept of the traveller:

If narrative is a journey, there are participants=travellers. There are travel-like activities involved: authorical dimension: writing /how much is written/, poetic dimension: muthos, emplotment of life as a journey, the reader’s dimension: reading is also immitating the act of travelling, we can explore phantasy worlds.

Traveller-like selves incorporated into narrative are writer and narrator, characters, the reader, who accompanies the characters in their journey of life.

The traveller’s typology: in a functional point of view, travellers can be of leading role (Annabel and Midget, Miss Emily, Hemingway’s couple), in the case of whom we learn enough from their life to understand their situation.  The episode role means that certain people get in, others get out, episode characters are there for only shorter periods, not during the whole story. (e.G. Miss E’s cousins, the maid at the hotel).

Composition of the traveller’s self:

it can be drawn from their activities or presented by the writer.

  • plain flat: only have a few features (usually episode characters)
  • compound flat: there is sg complicated in their characters, secrets, they have more complex personalities which contain contradictions (e.G. Fitzgerald’s Great Gatsby). This kind of characters are stuck at one level or stick to sg.

Divergence between journey without and within:

Author’s perspective: choice of the narrator: the narrator is a neglected, kind of invisible person. He is there, he can see the events, enables us to get inside.

Spatial perspective: narrator within and without, the narrator’s spatial position.

  1. Internal account: 1st person singular voice:

The narrator is involved in the action. The danger is in distorting the quality of subjectivity. A good narrator is aware of neutrality in the field of comments and value judgements.

Temporal aspects: there is a difference between narrative time, which is that of the narration which creates a distance and the narrated time which is that of the events.

Simultaneous: narration moves  step by step with the story, which creates a limited perspective. We have no anticipations for the future.

Retrospective:

  • omniscient: Nick Carraway: he knows everything, hints are dropped.
  • limited: Faulkner (credibility: collective voice: we =Jefferson)
  • External account: third person plural:

No active participation in the events. The creation of distance between events and voice adds credibility to the story.

  1. omniscient: (traditional type) it is the Greek/telling type of narration, which is descriptive. E.G. Auerbach, Mimesis
  2. third person limited/selective account: concentrates on one character , an aimed focus (zoom) appears.E.G. Jane Austen
  3. objective: camera eye: the most modern one. The narrator not only tells the veents but comments, we can read his or her opinion, value judgement. It is full of hermeneutic gaps which have to be filled in. E.G. Hemingway

The narative as a verbal icon                                 

  • Literary works are verbal icons, because they are made up of language and show an image of life. It is a different thing, how every narrative realises that.
  • We interpret the text as a vehicle, we can make steps to understand it.
  • A text is an icon, an image of a thought.
  • The icon is one unit but composed of more elements.
  • The perceptible shape (layout/skhéma) is the first thing we can see. According to the text’s longness or shortness, we can conclude whether the journey will be long or short. We can also draw the conclusion from the shape of the text. It can be a continuously narrated „road” or divided into stops (A Rose for Emily, which has important stations and we should read the story accordingly.)
  • The fictional inner form (morphé)

There are techniques of reading.

  1. Narratology (French): text as a signifier: signs are arranged into a meaningful structure (Roland Barthes’ theory, narrative sequences). The text is an arrangement of codes. The prospective/proairetic code contains a piece of information that points forward. (The rose in A Rose for Emily refers to Miss Emily buying poison and the smell from the house. It is a structural element, because you buy poison to use it for something. It contains an information gap, because if there is a smell, there is something behind it.) The function of prospective signs: we are looking for these road signs because we want to know the answer for certain things.

Retrospective (hermeneutic code): solves an enigma, answers a question, then we learn why things happen. (In the closing scene, going back to Emily’s bedroom, people find things which point backwards)

Texts can be classified according to whether they have an ending with a hermeneutic code, then they are readerly and if they lack it, they are writerly. Texts often end without a solution, then we have to end the story. It is common int he postmodern mentality where there are no answers. You also have to write on the stories of the avantgard.

  1. Poestics of fiction (Russian): text as a signified: focuses on the inner text space. Metaphor is used as an instrument in the inner fictitious world. The basic resemblance to start from is that life is a journey. Reading is a mapping activity. The plot structure is the focus, what characters do, we join the them on their journey of life, we look at their movements in space and time.

Morphé: what the text looks ike from inside. The journey made in a fictional space/world refers to the shape of the road taken by the characters’ movement. There is measurability in space and time, a from and to movement with a departure and destination, distances taken horizontally and vertically. The movement in the inner (psychological, mental) space, the journey within is a cognitive, psychological movement. Somebody is not the same person in the beginning and in the end, characters change. At the departure, they don’t know what will happen. The aim of the journey is to gain experience and learn.

Mapping the inner text space

Roadsigns are to be followed by the reader.

  1. Leading micro-elements: they are recurrent, they return time after time and show you the way to the destination. It does matter where they appear in the text. They are symbolical, they have organizing force, and create a pattern, so they are of high significance.

e.G. (1) in Somerset Maugham’s String of Beads Miss R’s adventure with the pearls can be read. The first road sign is a string of pearls, the second is a divergence with beads, their likeness is very important. It turns out that there are two strings. Pearls and beads are the two vehicles but the tenors are difficult to find. The stations are London and Paris, they look identical but they have different meanings (horizontal). Social significance is a vertical movement in her life. The rising and falling of this recognizable character is also involved in her adventures.

e.G. (2) in A Rose for Emily, Miss E. Has a place of departure and a place of destination, she moves in space. We are in the southern historical sphere with slaves. Jefferson is a public sphere, the house is a private sphere. But we move to the absolute private sphere. We are supposed to interpret what she does. Parts of her certain activities can be interpreted to the happening sin the South. Everything happens inside the house. The dianoia is between the house and the owner.

e.G. (3) Hemingway, Cat int he Rain: the couple’s journey of life, marriage as a journey. The station is the Italian city, the roadsigns are rain and cat. There are returning elements which seem to organize the story which are to be connected.

B) other micro-vehicles are scattered all over the text, they may be connected to diverse dimensions (space, time, psychology). They don’t obey any systematic logics.  They can help with the localization of the tenor. They illuminate the thought structure (dianoia). In D. Parker’s Standard of Living, the girls’ identical looks are the phenomena of consumer society.

Faulkner’s taxation scene, he smell, the negro servant are all elements which mean more than a simple fact in the story.


Spatial and temporal circumstances of the journey

  1. spatial circumstances:

a) simply a setting for the action, with the importance of opening scenes. Setting can be geographically extant or nonexistant (unmappable). Geographically unlocatable settings are fictions which cannot be shown ont he map. The creations have special meanings. Geographycally locatable settings can be found ont he map, but the details are fictions. Real elements run parallel with the idea. It isn’t accidental that the girls go to Fifth Avenue and the typical honeymoon place is Venice.

It is symbolical in Miss E’s house in Jefferson that every house is modernized but E’s not. Its falling apart let us guess about the state of Emily.

b) stressed significance: when leading or simple micro-element. Spatial details have extra meanings. There is a close relation between personality and place. Motifs are also embedded int he place of ideology.

  1. Circumstances of time (the dual concept of time)
  2. cyclical (similar to the Odyssey-type of journey in space, repetition)

e.G.(1) the contrast between nature and human life: summer=youth, autumn=ageing, winter=death, spring=birth.

e.G.(2) the cycle of life

It might have sg to do with the interpretation of a text.

  1. linear: the succession of past->present->future, time as having a direction realized by history, from prehistorical time to the end (of recorded time).

In the empirical field, the the circumstances of time are cyclical, when there is no sense of the passing of time (timelessness, standing in one place, characteristic for mythical time). In the case of the linear, there is a ’from-to’ movement -> historical time.

Techniques of the presentation of time: the narrative time is simultaneous, the narrated time is an extension. We can interpret flashbacks from the past, minute details from the present and the anticipation of an action from the future.

The combination of the spatial and temporal circumstances is the chronotope, like the spatialization/shaping of time-Gatsby’s house.


The narrative verbal icon /3

The recognition of the thought transferred by the plot: we read the text, understand what happens to people, what they do, but the meaning is sg other.

The elements of the plot can somehow make a mimetic relationship.

e.G.(1): The Standard of Living:

title: a station/standing in life

If we define it ourselves, it means a station, how you actually live but it’s a vertical position, how high you can climb or how low you can sink. There are two spaces, the real and the jocular (the space where their imaginary game takes place). Movements made without: walking inside NYC, daily routines (going to work, eating lunch, going for walks, meeting guys). Movements made within: is there any internal distance that they cover? We look at their characters at the end of the story. Int he jocular space: they are members of a cultural community, wear special clothes, but they will never have a million dollars. The author is sarcastic, but we can feel her pity. One little distance, a step made forward: 1 million dollars become 10 million dollars.

e.G.(2): A Rose for Emily:

Journey made without: Miss E’s circular outings. She starts from the houses and she returns. Her movements are just in and out of the house. But there are movements, at least by the servant. Miss Emily is stuck in time and space, she has the only place in Jefferson where time doesn’t seem to pass, the house is getting older and older, while the whole city is developing. Journey made within: we don’t know anything about her inside world, only her reactions, attitudes, the way she’s actually sticking to dead bodies. Her stations: death of father, meeting Homer Barron, developing a short affair,  enclosure (locks herself up in the house). In the last scene, the pieces of mosaic seem to click together.

e.G.(3): Hemingways’ iceberg technique: there is a sequence of actions but not all details are revealed. He only mentions the tip of the iceberg, we have to find out what under the surface is. He offers only certain hints.

Cat in the rain: there are short distances (room-street-room, bed-mirror-window), only a few characters, who are stuck in a hotel room. There is a contrastive parallel: we can realise from the couple’s little conversations that there are vast distances between them. You are invited to complete the missing information, to think.

The concept of the traveller:

If narrative is a journey, there are participants=travellers. There are travel-like activities involved: authorical dimension: writing /how much is written/, poetic dimension: muthos, emplotment of life as a journey, the reader’s dimension: reading is also immitating the act of travelling, we can explore phantasy worlds. Traveller-like selves incorporated into narrative are writer and narrator, characters, the reader, who accompanies the characters in their journey of life.


The traveller’s typology: in a functional point of view, travellers can be of leading role (Annabel and Midget, Miss Emily, Hemingway’s couple), in the case of whom we learn enough from their life to understand their situation.  The episode role means that certain people get in, others get out, episode characters are there for only shorter periods, not during the whole story. (e.G. Miss E’s cousins, the maid at the hotel).

Composition of the traveller’s self:

it can be drawn from their activities or presented by the writer.

  • plain flat: only have a few features (usually episode characters)
  • compound flat: there is sg complicated in their characters, secrets, they have more complex personalities which contain contradictions (e.G. Fitzgerald’s Great Gatsby). This kind of characters are stuck at one level or stick to sg.

Divergence between journey without and within:

Author’s perspective: choice of the narrator: the narrator is a neglected, kind of invisible person. He is there, he can see the events, enables us to get inside.

Spatial perspective: narrator within and without, the narrator’s spatial position.

  1. Internal account: 1st person singular voice:

The narrator is involved in the action. The danger is in distorting the quality of subjectivity. A good narrator is aware of neutrality in the field of comments and value judgements. 

Temporal aspects: there is a difference between narrative time, which is that of the narration which creates a distance and the narrated time which is that of the events. 

Simultaneous: narration moves  step by step with the story, which creates a limited perspective. We have no anticipations for the future.

Retrospective:

  • omniscient: Nick Carraway: he knows everything, hints are dropped.
  • limited: Faulkner (credibility: collective voice: we =Jefferson)
  • External account: third person plural:

No active participation in the events. The creation of distance between events and voice adds credibility to the story.

  1. omniscient: (traditional type) it is the Greek/telling type of narration, which is descriptive. E.G. Auerbach, Mimesis
  2. third person limited/selective account: concentrates on one character , an aimed focus (zoom) appears.E.G. Jane Austen
  3. objective: camera eye: the most modern one. The narrator not only tells the veents but comments, we can read his or her opinion, value judgement. It is full of hermeneutic gaps which have to be filled in. E.G. Hemingway

Entradas relacionadas: