Divergence in the upper air results, near the surface in: atpl

Classified in Geology

Written at on English with a size of 5.1 KB.

Ozone (O3 ) is a made with three oxygen atoms; it is very unstable and has a short lifetime. At room Temperature and pressure has acrid odour and no colour, although at high concentration levels can turn Into blue. At high concentrations can be toxic and can cause death. It s not emitted directly into the air, but is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the presence of sunlight. VOC + NOx + sunlight tropospheric O3Particulate Matter (PM) "Particulate matter," also known as particle pollution or PM, is a complex mixture of extremely small Particles and liquid droplets. Particle pollution is made up of a number of components, including acids (such as nitrates and sulfates), organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dust particles. Particle pollution includes "inhalable coarse particles," with Diameters larger than 2.5 micrometers and smaller than 10 Micrometers and "fine particles," with diameters that are 2.5 Micrometers and smaller

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) is one of a group of highly reactive gasses known as "oxides of Nitrogen," or "nitrogen oxides (NOx )." Other nitrogen oxides include nitrous acid and nitric Acid. EPA’s National Ambient Air Quality Standard uses NO2 as the indicator for the larger Group of nitrogen oxides. NO2 Forms quickly from emissions from cars, trucks and buses, Power plants, and off-road equipment. In addition to contributing to the formation of groundlevel Ozone, and fine particle pollution, NO2 Is linked with a number of adverse effects on the Respiratory systemSulfur dioxide (SO2 ) is one of a group of highly reactive gasses known as “oxides of sulfur.” The largest sources of SO2 emissions are from fossil fuel combustion at power plants (73%) And other industrial facilities (20%). Smaller sources of SO2 emissions include industrial Processes such as extracting metal from ore, and the burning of high sulfur containing fuels By locomotives, large ships, and non-road equipment. SO2 Is linked with a number of Adverse effects on the respiratory system
Smog: smoke + fog Smog is a type of air pollution derived from vehicular emissions and industrial fumes that react in the atmosphere with sunlight to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to Form photochemical smog. This phenomenon is increased by thermal inversion, that traps pollution close to The ground. It is usually highly toxic to humans and can cause severe sickness, shortened life or death
Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it possesses Elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals and Infrastructure. Acid rain is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) and nitrogen oxide (NOx ), which React with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids. Nitrogen oxides can also be Produced naturally by lightning strikes and sulfur dioxide is produced by volcanic eruptions. The Chemicals in acid rain can cause paint to peel, corrosion of steel structures such as bridges, and erosion Of stone statues. 
The greenhouse effect is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by Atmospheric GHG and is re-radiated in all directions. Since part of this re-radiation is back towards the Surface and the lower atmosphere, it results in an elevation of the average surface temperature above what it Would be in the absence of the gases. Solar radiation at the frequencies of visible light largely passes through the atmosphere to warm the planetary Surface, which then emits this energy at the lower frequencies of IR thermal radiation. Infrared radiation is Absorbed by GHG, which in turn re-radiate much of the energy to the surface and lower atmosphere. The surface temperature of Earth without this phenomenon would be around 33°C below actual surface Temperature (≈ 14°C). Earth’s natural greenhouse effect makes life as we know it possible. However, Human activities have intensified the natural GH effect, causing global warming.Keeling curve shows the continuous growth of CO2 In the atmosphere since 1958. It takes all measurings in an observer of vulcano Mauna Loa, And were the first evidence of the fast increase of CO2 In the atmosphere. These gases are inactive in the atmosphere for a long time CO2 concentration Has increased from preindustrial age (around 1750), from 280 ppm a 379 ppm en 2005. Around 2/3 of Emissions come from fossil fuel burning, while remaining 1/3 comes from the change in ground use (including deforestation)

Entradas relacionadas: