The electricity used to meet our energy needs (housing, buildings and industries) But there are serious dangers such as fires and electrocucions if facilities do not meet the appropriate security.
Low Voltage Electrotechnical Regulations (REBT) technical conditions and guarantees must be met by electrical installations connected to a low voltage supply in order to:
-Preserve the safety of persons and property.
-Ensure the normal operation of these facilities and prevent disruptions that could cause other facilities and prevent disruptions that could cause other facilities and services.
-Contribute to the technical reliability and efficiency of economic facilities.
Complementary technical instructions (ITC - BT), REBT develop and provide specific rules for each type of installation adapted to technological improvements.
Electrical installation of low voltage devices and circuits together with partners to produce, convert, transform, transmit, distribute, or use electric power with voltages.
-Facilities for outdoor lighting, al'enllumenat for public or private spaces, highways, squares, etc..
-Home installations for al'enllumenat from inside the home.
- Industrial installations for buildings or sites dedicated to the manufacture or handling of products.
- Facilities in local public, for activities and buildings accessed by the general public, eg, theaters, hospitals, etc.
The electrical installations Installation binding link connecting the installation with the interior of the subscriber or making embrancament general public distribution network.
The embrancament or making general, the installation between the distribution network and the overall safety protection.
The installation of link:
- Safety protection overall, which hosted the elements of protection, the fuses, the general line of food. It is outside of the building.
- General supply line, connecting the box to the centralized general protection counter.
- Centralization of counters, counter set, along with the security and connectivity of individual referrals, installed modules, prefabricated isolated, fed by a general line of food.
Accountants, devices to measure electrical energy consumed by the subscriber. Counter housing for single-phase and three phase meter for commercial or industrial. The derivation individual is an electric line connecting with the computer counting devices and protection of the panel of interior installation. Monophasic Line (phase, neutral and protection), 3-Wire line phase (3 phases neutral and protection), 5 drivers.
The interior installation:
Home installations: the protection panel and houses the main components of security, protection and maneuver inside the installation. Installed as close as possible.
-Maximum power switch control (ICMP): magnetothermic switch that functions to prevent the contracted power supplies we see the company surpassed.
Automatic switch-General (IGA): Overview of switch installation inside. It can be activated manually and has protection against overloads and short circuits.
Switch-differential (ID) unit responsible for protecting people from direct and indirect contacts. Has the function of detecting leakage currents and serves as insulation and must install at least one ID for each five courses of food.
Small-breakers (PIA): switch magnetorèrmics protecting overload and short circuit of each circuit of the interior installation.
Surge-protection device (DPS): Also called Downloader, device for detecting a dangerous surge in the installation diverted directly to the soil through the installation of drivers of protection.
Born-earth connection point inside the safety net, which connects the metal casings of receptors through the driver's protection referral to the individual earthing of the building.
The Circuit Power: Electrification basic, has a minimum of five courses for the use of common appliances (washing, cooking, etc.) and allows simultaneous operation of total power at no less than 5750W 230V.
Electrification high, has more than five circuits that allow simultaneous operation of a total power of not less than 9200W to 230V.Els dwellings over 160m 2 of usable area are E.elevada.
Industrial facilities: require stricter requirements and of a higher reliability. Typically installed a general protection, distribution and handling of which three-phase lines and different parts monofàsiques protected by magnetothermic and differential switches. The lines are formed by drivers channeled into pipes, insulated rigid or metal trays with metal. Sometimes they are underground and are distributed by a pipeline of work done on the ground of the enclosure.
Facilities in local public competition: are characterized by having an installation of emergency lighting in case of failure of supply by the supplier, ensuring the safe evacuation of the premises ( security lighting), and the premises where required, allow to continue normal activity (replacement lamp).
CONTROL EQUIPMENT (electrical operators that have the function of control circuits).
- Switches: device that functions to open and close a circuit, and leave it in either state until activated again.
The switch has two terminals or terminal connection and two stable positions. When open and not let the stream is closed when the flow stops happening. It served as a command of many common appliances (TV, stereo, and others who powered from a single point).
- Buttons: closed and open circuit, but only perform their function while being driven back and stops automatically when the initial state action. It has two terminals connected and a drive mechanism with a spring recovery. [Trigger ormalment N O bert, the circuit remains open to sleep and only closes when you press the button (used in comnadament circuit with acoustic devices, such as ringtones and brunzidors]. [Trigger ormalment N T ancat maintains closed circuit il'obre rested, so that interrupts the passage of current, when you press the button (used to control the lamps are lit to open a port such as the refrigerator).]
- SWITCHES: appliances command has three connection terminals: one input and two outputs. Allows to open or close an electrical circuit from two different points. The entrance is born together, and the outputs are switched terminals. It is used to power on and off a light from two points of a room. It also functions as a switch if you only use the clamp and a common output all.
- Switch crossing: device has four terminals connection, two inputs and two outputs, and two positions of operation, allowing the connection of the reverse entries with the departures. It is used for lighting circuits to be commanded by more than two points, a double room where you have to activate and deactivate the lamp from the entrance and the sides of the bed.
- Other devices: Teleruptor, device that functions as a switch operated remotely. It consists of an electromagnet and one or more contacts. Its operation is to receive an electrical impulse when the coil of the electromagnet, the contact changes position again and reposition the coil until it receives an electrical impulse is not new. Serves to control lighting circuits from different points. In the market there are more than teleruptors lighting or extinguishing the light can regulate the function of its intensity due to a small electronic circuit that have integrated.
Automatic scaling mechanism that allows to regulate the electric ignition time (timing) of a lighting installation. It consists of an electromagnet and a contact in timed disconnection. Its application is the illumination of stairs to apartment buildings. Scale models of machines are thermal, electronic, pneumatic, etc..
Porter electric installation that lets you open the front door from inside the building each home.
Consists of two push buttons at the entrance of the building, each operates a brunzidor located inside each home, where a button activates the coil of electric lock to open the gateway to building. Two types: electronic door and video entry.
INTRODUCTION TO DOMOTICA:
Ttecnologia dealing with automation and control facilities of housing, with the aim of improving the quality of life, facilitate domestic tasks, increasing the safety of its occupants and optimize use of resources to improve 'energy efficiency of housing.
- Elements of a system domotyc: Sensor elements responsible for capturing any physical change in a given space and provide this information, directly or through the controller, a device to make its operations to the installation. EJM: motion sensors, smoke, humidity, etc..
Drives, devices that receive a command control unit, or directly from a sensor, perform an action determined to installation. EJM: turn on or turn off a lamp.
Control unit or controller, home automation systems exist in centralized, it manages the central system automation. In the central reaches the sensors that capture information, processes it and sends the appropriate commands to actuators. EJM: microprocessor to a personal computer.
- Classification systems domòstics:
Facilities centralized ¸ sensors and actuators are connected to the controller, sensors and actuators to the inputs to outputs. It has a supplementary feeding system for feeding the system if power fails.
Facilities distributed, there is no control unit, and normally the system elements are linked through a typical wired bus.
Facilities mixed installations where decentralized control system is performed with several small drivers. Thus if a control unit stops working, does not affect the rest of the system is running.
- Applications for home automation:
Control and energy management, to streamline and reduce energy consumption to reduce energy consumption. Its applications are:
-Planning and zoning of the air.
-Rationalization of electric charges, depending on the contracted power.
Management fees-ie, the system prioritizes the operation of equipment with high consumption in the period of night rate.
-Regulation of lighting according to ambient brightness.
Security to protect people, assets and facilities of housing. Its applications include:
-Security of persons with medical scheduling alerts, useful for elderly or infirm.
-Security of assets, with applications such as access control management, anti-theft systems.
-Secure facilities, control and management of weapons techniques, such as fire, power failures, etc..
Communications, its function is to integrate different communications systems to facilitate information exchange. Its applications include:
Foreign-control system (remote management)
-Incident Communication and transmission of alarms.
Pricing system of electricity:
The price of energy is fixed in electricity rates. Electricity rates are classified as: Rates of low voltage supplies with rated voltages not exceeding 1000V. Rates of high voltage supplies with voltages over 1000V.
The electricity tariffs are to:
* Basic rate (binomial structure formed by term power depends on the subscriber to the contracted power (kW). Terme energy represents the energy consumed and measured by the subscriber counter (kWh).
* Firefox rate: number of surcharges or discounts are applied on the basic rate.
- Compl. For discrimination time: discount that seeks to promote the consumption of low consumption hours (Saturdays, Sundays, etc.). We need a count that could discriminate the hours when energy is used.
- Compl. Seasonality: bonus applied to the term energy depending on the time of year special provision.
- Compl. For reactive power: bonus percentage that applies to the basic rate to prevent the consumption of reactive power can have a specific electrical installation.
MEASURES OF USE, SAFETY AND CONSERVATION:
-The head of the user installation is responsible for the use, conservation and maintenance in accordance with the security required and recommended a review every five years.
-The arrangements and the revisions should make an authorized installer.
-To avoid electrocution:
* Having the facilities in the security conditions established by REBT.
* Remove any risk of contact with elements in tension.
* Not having appliances in the bathroom at your fingertips.
* Do not ever touch the apparatus or electrical conductors with your hands or feet wet, moist or above.