Foreign Policy:Def 1: The goals that a nation’s officials seek to Realize abroad, The values that Give rise to them, and the means Or instruments used to pursue them.Def 2: Foreign policy is the sum of official external relations conducted By an independent actor (usually A state) in international relations.Vallès Public policy: Public Policy Styles regarding two variables: if the initiation of a policy is reactive or Anticipative and the relation between the main actors (consensual or imposed). Anticipative-consensual: traditionally Identified with the politics of Sweden and Japan.Reactive-consensual: given in UK politics, after wide previous Consultation between several actors.Anticipative-imposed: … Reactive-imposed: Economic shock Policies, adapted by governments after an unexpected crisis. // The characteristics of the Political structure and political culture influence the content and that form Of elaboration public policy. Several factors intervene in this process: Institutional framework, political party system, cultural values, etc. FP Decision-Making Ppt: We can identify diverse Variables (explanans) in order o analyze FPDM:Small groups dynamics: in high-level FP Decisions the group of decision makers is usually small: no more than 15 People.Leadership style. Internal Bureaucratic/organizational context (agents vs. Agency). What determines the Actions of the FP of a State?Material Attributes, Bureaucratic structures, Economic Structure, Socio-cultural structure, Historic experience, Individual, Internal Politics. FPA theoretical toolbox: What states want (IR theory): Preference formation (system-level and State-level actors). Decision-making (FPA: RAM/BPM/IAM): Understanding the Choice situation and making decisions. What states do: Foreign policy output (security, diplomacy, economic policies).Constructivism: How constructivism contributes to FPA? Understanding bureaucracies and Interests. Understanding decision-making (bargaining and arguing). Understanding The iteraction between the international and the domestic levels of analysis, For example human rights. // Ex: Role of Nato during the cold war: NATO was a forum for establishing and cementing Peaceful relations and new social relationships with new practices among the European member states, as it was a defense alliance designed to keep the Soviets out. NATO’s foreign policy was understood as more than material Capabilities and interest-based cooperation: it was also about the Reconstitution of identities and shared knowledge, reinforced through security Practices that facilitate a culture of anarchy based on friendship and Cooperation, rather than on rivalry. RAM:The rational decision maker chooses the alternative that provides the Consequence that is most preferred. The model is primarily useful in Explanations of economic behavior. It is attractive because of its parsimony And predictive power.If diplomacy is Preferred to sanctions and sanctions are preferred to use of force, then Diplomacy is preferred over the use of force. Utility maximization: Actors will Select the alternative that provides the greatest amount of net benefits. The Main actor is th unitary state. Each unitary actor follows the logic of utility (utility maximizers) and rational choice. The international environment Determines state actions. RAM is also about opportunity costs.Among other models, the rational model is the basis of game theoryand EUT. Process 8: Identify problem, Identify and rank goals, Gather Information, Identify alternatives for reaching goals, Analyze alternatives by Considering consequences and effectiveness (costs and benefits) of each Alternative and probabilities associated with success, Select alternative that Maximizes chances of selecting best alternative as determined in step five, Implement decision, Monitor and evaluate.BPM: In BPM Bureaucracies have an important role In foreign policy making and implementation. There is not a unitary actor, the Main actor is a group of individuals inside the institutional structure of the State or a small group of decision-makers. BPM generates outputs that structure The situation in which policy makers take decisions. These outputs are the Information that bureaucracies provide to governments, the FP alternatives they Present to government, and the Standard Operating Procedures that shape the State’s foreign policy. In bureaucracies individual interests take an important Role, for example, as each bureaucracy manipulates foreign policy in the Desires direction corresponding to its particular interests, bureaucratic considerations May override the national interest. Players choose according to various factors Of national security, organizational, domestic and personal interests. BPM Focuses more on processes internal to the state, rather than on interaction Between states. In the BPM foreign policy is the unintended result of a Bargaining process involving the principal participants. Culture/Identity: Who are we, who Are they, what do we do. Culture and identity can shape the differences in Values and preferences in FP and FPM.