The duty of care objective

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what vict. Do (4 step in research: 1: identifify crime, define, and describe the problem) 2: measure the true dimensions of..3: investigate How Victims Are Handled  Step 4: Gather Evidence to Test Hypotheses.

Victimologists explore the interactions between Victims and offenders, victims and the criminal justice System, and victims and society. Victimologists study the ways in which Crime victims are harmed, including Physical injury, psychological trauma, and financial Loss.Why Study Victimology? Intellectual benefits. Expansion of horizons. Practical applications that ease suffering of Others and provide a sense of purpose, worth, Accomplishment, and satisfaction. To obtain a complete understanding and Appreciation of reactions to victimization.Divisions Within The Discipline,Liberal Influence Scope of field to extend beyond street crimes. Endorse government intervention  Extend ‘safety net’ mechanisms for all kinds of Misfortunes  Look to wrongdoers repaying their victims to allow for Reconciliation. Radical/Critical/Conflict Influence  Victimization is a result of oppressive social system  Looks toward societal factors such as poverty, Unemployment, language barriers, etc. As explanations Behind crime. Conservative Influence  Focuses primarily on street crimes. Everyone to be held accountable for their decisions And actions. Emphasis on self reliance, NOT government  Individual responsibility for preventing, avoiding, Resisting and recovering from criminal acts. Strictly punish offenders on behalf of their victims.
Victimology is a new academic discipline that only Means “the study of victims.”  It is focused on the research about people harmed By criminals. It does not impose a partisan point of view or a set Or predictably biased conclusions. The ideology of “victimism” is a coherent, integrated Set of beliefs that shapes interpretations and l political action.Three Types of Bias 1. May arise from personal experience, taking the Form of individual preferences and prejudices. 2. Derives from the history of the discipline itself.  Pioneers in the study of victimology first introduced The concept of victim-blaming. Today, majority of victimologists are pro-victim.The Challenge of Objectivity .Victimological research must tell the whole truth Regardless of who is disappointed or insulted. Three types of biases undermine the ability of any Social scientist to achieve objectivity. Stcudying Vitimization Scientifically 4 Subjective Approach  Issues are approached from standpoint of morality, Ethics, philosophy, personalized reactions, and Emotions  Objective Approach. Requires observer to be fair, open-minded, evenhanded, Dispassionate, neutral, and unbiased. jury(the venire is the jury pool • names are drawn from the master jury List and they are asked to report for jury Duty (the venire) • some exemptions are made: doctors, Lawyers, ministers, etc. • compliance with jury duty summonses is A major concern (many people do not Report or ask for exemptions).Voir dire is the examination of a Prospective juror to determine if they Can be fair and impartial • process varies tremendously— Sometimes only a judge is involved in Other place lawyers participate too • scope and intensity of the questioning Varies too, can take a short time or Long depending on the case.
Jury Consultants • jury selection has taken a scientific turn • used in high profile/expensive cases • use public opinion polls, focus groups to Help write questions for lawyers to use During voir dire • used more by defense attorneys than Prosecutors.Jury Duty is the only time when citizens Perform direct service for their Government • many citizens appear frustrated with Having to perform jury service • most jurors report being satisfied with The process • government is trying to ease the Burden -- to get greater compliance.Rules of Evidence • evidence refers to information presented at Trial • real evidence includes objects (e.G., guns) • testimony – statements by witnesses • expert witnesses – possess special Knowledge or expertise •direct evidence refers to proof of a fact Without other information •circumstantial evidence indirectly proves a Point.Two criteria for judging evidence • trustworthiness –only the most reliable And credible information should be used. For example, courts avoid hearsay which is Secondhand evidence – “my brother told me“my brother” is not in court to testify • relevance – evidence must be related to An issue at trial. Effort is to avoid immaterial or irrelevant Evidence.He jury foreperson announces the Verdict – the decision of a trial court • after the announcement either party Can ask for the jurors to be polled • juries convict in criminal cases 2/3 of The time and in civil cases find for the Plaintiffs about 50% •studies show that juries and judges Would frequently agree on outcome.

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