Dna:deoxiribonucleic Acid, substance that carry genetic information in a cell
Protein: organic compound that consists of long chains Of molecules and is an estential part of living things
Genetic code:set of instructions in a gene that tells a cell how to do a Specific protein
Genome:set of genes in an organism
Genetic engineering: manipulation of genetic material to Change the traits of an organism
Biotechnology: biological technique to create improved Products for human consumption
Genes:are located in the chromosomes and are thhe Basic unit of inheritance that carry genetic information.Genes consist of Dna,the molecule that gives cells and all organoisms biological information
Cytokkienesis :phaseG1: protein synthesis and cell growth .PhaseS:replication of DNAand histones.PhaseG2: Preparation for cell Division.Mitosis phase: division of the nucleus.
Replication: process in wich the dna is duplicated. 1- the double helix of dna opens up and two Strands separate. 2-free floating Nucleotides attach themselves to the separated dna strands. Each nitrogenous Base is attached to its complementary. 3- the nucleotides join to the separated strands to form new strands 4- at the end of replication process there Are two identical copies of dna, each one have qa strand from the original dna And a new strand, the replication of Dna is called semiconservative replication.
Differences Between RNA and DNA: RNA consists of a single chain wicha have ribose Nucleotides instead of deoxyribose nucleotides
mRNA: it is a copy of DNA that is needed to Sithesyse a protein
rRNA: (ribosomal rna) this forms part of the Ribosomes, here the amino acids join together to make protein chains
tRNA/transfer rna) this transports aminoacids from The cytoplasm to the ribosomes.Its role is to attach specific aminoacids to the Protein chains thar are being sinthesised in the ribosomes
Tra:nscription it is a process in wich the DSNA copies its Information in RNA so that it can be used To sinthesise a protein. 1- The double helix of DNA opens up. 2- The complementary nucleotodes position themselves opposite on one of the two Strands. 3- only one of the DNA Strands is copied 4- an RNA strand Is produced with a secuence of bases that is complementary to the Dna bases.
Genetic code: it is the relastionship between the nitrogenous bases and aminoacids in mRNA that Make proteins, it is used to sinthesise proteis during translation . Characteristics:
It is Universal: it is identicall in all organisms, from the simplest bacteria to Humkan beings.
It is Degenerate. The aminoacids are associated with more thanone codon
It has Triplets(stop codons) wich do not Code for any amino acid
The AUG Triplet acts as start signal at the beginning on mrna translation