1830-1935 Cultural Aspect
EDUCATION: For the first years of the existence of the Republic, from 1830, the school situation was very poor; dynamic educational nuclei were focused at the universities of Caracas and Merida. In the provinces worked several National Schools founded by the Colombian government. Dr. José María Vargas and Juan Manuel Cajigal were the media in efforts to achieve the creation of new schools. The Congress of 1830 decided that primary education was developed by each provincial entity.
Regional governments were able to build some schools for elementary education in some major towns.
An important fact, beneficial for education was the creation of the National Library, by decree of the National Executive, chaired by General Paez, in 1833.
In 1870, under the chairmanship of General Antonio Guzmán Blanco, was promulgated on June 27, the decree of free and compulsory primary instruction.
Other provisions of Guzman Blanco established the regulation of printing textbooks for primary school division or national public into two categories: federal and sectionals.
Guzman President reorganized the Central University and encouraged the study of science, created the Institute of Fine Arts and Natural History Museum and founded the Venezuelan Academy of Literature.
It also mandated the creation of the first colleges in various cities across the country and sending young people outside more prepared, in order to train and retrain to return the country to develop training activities in the student population, for who wished to devote to teaching.
Inconsistencies policies Venezuela nineteenth century did not allow the progress and was clearly slowing the learning process.
For those years and worked in the country six colleges and 1014 federal schools.
Other figures related to the educational movement in the time we clearly show guzmancista governmental efforts to educate the people of Venezuela. There were national schools in first, second and third category.
For the year 1881-1882 operating the University of Caracas, Merida, Valencia and Maracaibo.
In the early twentieth century, during the government of General Cipriano Castro, education was not the first official priority, and even struck hard with the closure of the University of Zulia.
The ascent to power of General Juan Vicente Gómez was not very beneficial for instruction as for political reasons, on several occasions temporarily closed the University of Caracas.
On the death of General Juan Vicente table on education in the country did not vary much in relation to official statistics submitted to the year 1927, with very slight variations, since in recent years of dictatorship was very little attention is paid to the educational aspects of the country.
On the cultural movement in the closing years of the period under study, it highlights the creations of some important institutions such as the Venezuelan Academy of Language Academy for Spanish, the National Academy of History, Academy of Fine Artes Medical Academy, the Academy of Political and Social Sciences, the Academy of Physical Sciences, Mathematics and Natural Sciences. These institutions joined the wide cultural activity that displayed the Museum of Fine Arts, Public Library and the Conservatory of Music.
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Activities in the scientific and technological research in the years before us were equally critical drivers of cultural activity in the country. In these endeavors many citizens who excelled in all fields of science and technology, left important traces. Of all these valuable citizens highlight the following:
Dr. José María Vargas, Caracas University reorganized, modernized medical school and popular education widely favored during his presidential term.
Jose Gregorio Hernandez formed in the central University Chairs of Histology, Physiology and Bacteriology. He was also co-founder of the Academy of Medicine.
LETTERS IN VENEZUELAN
In the various disciplines have shone many Venezuelans. Of them are:
Andrés Bello is called the patriarch of American letters. His poetry Silva to the Agriculture of the Torrid Zone and others, led him to the highest seat of Venezuelan and Latin American poetry. Other works are: The Prayer for All, dance, Address to Poetry
Rafael Barak, not left many works, but live up to its name, the history of Venezuela and the Dictionary of Gallic.
Cecilio Acosta, in his work is neat and great editing, which makes its publications masterpieces. The Dewdrop. La Casita Blanca and the vespers are jobs that are at the high level of the best in Latin-American poetic literature.
IN PAINTING AND SCULPTURE
One of the most splendid art forms that reached during these years were the visual arts. The painting had a strong relationship with the different styles prevalent in Europe, which was visited Venezuelan painters.
There were two remarkable artists, precursors of the large painting of Venezuela. They were Juan Lovera and Carmelo Fernandez. The works of the former have a historical character: On 19 April and on 5 July 1811. In these highlights from each individual the principal characters of such events. The second makes a work of a military nature, being an excellent draftsman and watercolorist. Venezuela Illustrated History of Barak and Diaz.
Averaging the nineteenth century raises three giants of painting:
Martin Tovar, Arturo Michelena, Cristobal de Rojas, which will be specified later his work.
Of the painters of the century and the twentieth century stand out: Tito Salas, Carlos Otero, Francisco Valdez, Antonio Esteban Frias, Francisco Sanchez, Alvarez Cruz Salas and clear example of the time Emilio Boogie.
The painting in the early twentieth century has its nucleus at the Circulo de Bellas Artes de Caracas, founded in 1912, there are present Marcelo Vidal, Manuel Cabré, Rafael Monasteries, Raul Santana, Federico Brandt, Manuel Fernandez and others who gave their name Venezuela to painting.
The sculpture was not much cultivated during this time. The few sculptors who had cultivated the styles prevalent in Europe, Neoclassicism, Romanticism, Naturalism and Realism. Made important individual works, but were not able to achieve a movement of importance. Only from Guzmán Blanco and at the founding of the Academy of Fine Arts in 1877 is increased somewhat sculptural creation.
Among the most outstanding sculptors must cite Eloy Palacios, Lorenzo Gonzalez and Andres Perez Mujica, which further specified the work.
Other sculptors were: Pedro María Basalo, Carlos Alvarez Garcia and Isaac Poletto, all with excellent sculptures scattered cities across the country.
IN THE MUSIC
At the end of the colony had been a remarkable flowering of music. Speaking of the Academies and lead to a greater degree of importance. In this field of art to be highlighted;
Juan Manuel Olivares, Father Pedro Palacios y Sojo, Angel Lamas, Juan Jose Landaeta, Cayetano Carreno those living the war years and made even after her compositions.
Among the most prominent composers include:
Vicente Emilio Sojo, Juan Bautista Plaza, Jose Antonio Calcaño, Miguel Angel and Juan Vicente Calcaño Lecuna, all because of this century.
A notable music in the last century was the extraordinary singer and pianist Teresa Carreno, who has traveled around the world bearing the name of Venezuela's most famous concert halls and other sites devoted to music.
There is established the Gloria al Bravo Pueblo as the National Anthem of Venezuela.