In general, in a first approximation, we can define culture as the set of knowledge, beliefs, customs and human inventions. Therefore, the notion of culture includes:
• The tools, and techniques and technological works that human being has invented. • Knowledge, beliefs and opinions which are products of human creativity. Language, literary and artistic Works… • Social customs, different ways of greeting, dance, play, and punishments and rewards associated with different actions are an important part of every society
While biological evolution is the way by which living beings adapt to the environment in which they live, because of the cultural evolution human beings have the ability to make the environment adapts to the human needs.
1) Replace our lacks as animals to defend ourselves in a very hostile environment, and thus preventing the extinction of our species. 2) Adapt to the environment, both natural and social, no matter how extreme it is, by modifying it.
Human selection and Natural selection
In this fragment of The origin of the species, Darwin compares the process of human selection with that of natural selection.The text starts by affirming that in order that one gives the natural selection it is necessary that before there has taken place a variation of certain characteristics of the alive beings and compares this process with the process followed by the human beings in the selection of his domestic species. Later, it holds that there are notable differences between the human selection and the natural selection, since whereas the first one only acts on the external characteristics of the individuals to favor the own human being, the natural selection can act on any quality, external or internal, of the individuals and only in the interest of these. Finally, it indicates that the natural selection is a constant process that discriminates against the useful variations of the useless ones in order to improve the organic and inorganic characteristics of all the alive beings.
The human being as a «deficient being»
In this fragment of the book philosophical Anthropology, Gehlen speaks about the importance of the culture to compensate the biological deficiencies of the human being. In text it starts by affirming that in case of the human being, unlike the rest of species, we do not find any organic quality that has developed specially and that has been key in his adjustment to the way. Later, it holds that one of the characteristics of the man is the absence of specialized organs (claws, hair ...) that have made his adjustment and accession possible in the habitats in which it lives, to what it is necessary to add the slow process of development until it can use for yes same. However, it contrasts with the previous thing the fact that the human being has spread practically all over the planet using the skills and resources that the culture provides to him, up to the point that this one constitutes a fundamental and inseparable element of our species. For it, it is said in the text that " there are no men ... Without any degree of culture ". Finally, it stresses the idea of that, in spite of his organic helplessness, the human being has settled himself and survived in the Earth thanks to the culture, since this one has allowed him to transform his environment, of domesticating it, of adapting it to his needs.