The Gregorian chant was created by the Codification of liturgy and music under the Roman leaders helped by the Frankish kings. It stands as a memorial to religious faith in the Middle Ages And embodies the community spirit and artistic sensibility of that time.
Characteristics Of the chant
There are three manners of performance:
1)“Responsorial” Is when a soloist alternates with a choir
2)“Antiphonal” Is when two groups alternate with each other
3)“Direct” Is when the choir is singing together without alternation.
There are three styles of setting text:
1)“Syllabic” Is when almost every syllable has a single note
2)“Neumatic” Is when syllables carry one to six notes
3)“Melismatic”. Melismas are long melodic passages on a single syllable. The chants that Featured them are called Melismatic.
Psalms Were poems from the Hebrew book of Psalms.
Cantillation was a system in which people were chanting of Sacred texts and it is based on melodic formulas that reflected the phrase Divisions of a text.
The Church Calendar:
Every year the church commemorated each event Of Jesus’ life or saint with a feast, in a cycle known as “church calendar”. The most important feasts are Christmas in which people were celebrating Jesus’ Birth and Easter, in which they were celebrating Jesus’ resurrection.
The Church Calendar is important for Understanding the liturgy because sometimes there are some aspects changing With the day or season.
Introductory Section: Introit, Kyrie, Gloria, Collect
Readings And psalms: Epistle, Gradual, Alleluia, Sequence, Gospel, Sermon, Credo.
Prayers And communion: Offertory, Sanctus, Agnus Dei, Communion, Ite missa est.
Proper Of the Mass: Always have different text.
Ordinary Of the Mass: Always have the same text.
The Liturgy and music of the Roman church were Aiming to addressing God and reinforcing the faith of the audience.
Modes Were codified for classifying chants and arranging to books for liturgical use. There are 8 modes. Each mode is paired with another that shares the same final.
The Office is a series of 8 services that since the early Middle Ages have been celebrated daily at specified times. In addition, in the Office was made a codification about the times throughout the day and night That early Christians were praying and singing psalms.
A Trope could expand a chant in 3 ways:
1)By Adding words and music before the chant and often between the phrases
2)By Adding melody only, extending melismas or adding new ones
3)By Adding text only, which was set to extending melismas