Empirical-analytical vs ontological-normative

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Liberalism: Liberal idealism as main historical alternative to realism. First debate between realism and idealism in the 1920s-30s. Main theorists: I. Kant, J.S Mill, A. Smith, J. Locke. Rejection of realist claims of immutable and anarchic IR, such claim is not supported by empirical evidence. Role of 3 Kantian constraints on state sovereignty: democratic rule, transnational and international trade, international organisation. Commonalities with realism: adoption of positivist ontology, epistemology, and methodology. Theoretical upgrade from realism: explanatory but also critical and normative theory. 4 main streams of modern IR Liberalism 1. Classical or sociology 2. Publican and democratic peace 3. Liberal institutionalism 4. Neo-conservatism democratic transformation of IR. Similarities with realism: international system as anarchic, states as the main actors. Difference from realism: states are not the only actors, variety of non-state actors— individuals, IGOs, NGOs, pressure groups, states are not all equal. There is an emphasis on domestic forms of government, interdependence between domestic and international politics. Foreign policy as a function of domestic dynamics, state policy reflects individual preferences rather than systemic pressures. Individuals are rational/cost-benefit actors. They can not be regarded as ‘black boxes’. Link between foreign and domestic policy, conflict no longer a natural condition in IR, unlimited amount of security, IR no longer 0sum game, Mutual and collective. The prisioners dillemma, international cooperation rather than conflict. Collective security. Claim objectivity through empirical analysis. Inductive and deductive approach.

Marxism: both deductive and inductive, scientific approach, positivist epistemology. Historical developments: consolidation of soviet bloc, decolonization. Social process rather than material state interest. Capitalism is necc for socialism. Belief in objective reality. Focus on structure of economic production rather than intl system. Structure of economic production: independent variable. Interdependence between politics and economics. Actors inc states: dependent variable. Conflict caused by intristic state of capitalism not anarchy or autocracy. Capitalist system is expansive constantly in search of new profit and markets. Explanatory, normative and critical contribution to IR. Conflict not confined to states; classes. Periphery exploited by the core. 2 types of conflict: states and classes

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