1.Trade + transactions: it’s the free trade agreements and elimination of barriers (tariffs). The mutual recognition market (if an apple is accepted in Germany, in Spain we will accept it). The cross-border trade has increased as well as the manufactured goods and the multinationals. 2.Capital and investments: foreign investment in 1991 represented 65% of world’s GDP and in 2006 the 30%. There are more investments in undeveloped countries like Africa. Santander has 25% of its business in Brazil. 3.Migration: in 1975 there were 78M of people and in 2005 2000M plus the migrant remittances of some countries which don’t export products, they export people. 4.Spreading of knowledge and technology: IT revolution, Internet, TV but also the jet engine machine impact on tourism. There are more phones than people in this country right now. But it’s not only about communications also space exploration investment. // Causes and speeding of globalization: Technological innovation and change // Political innovation with gender equality, freedom, democracy etc // Changes in economy policies: that support trade liberation. Economic liberalism has become fashion again // Paradoxes of contemporary globalization: ECONOMIC: Increase in competition which causes decreasing prices and salaries —> inequality and poverty // Increase of inequality nationally causes —> global converge, there are more poor countries than rich countries
POLITICAL: Some forces are above government control: your life is not really under your control (House of Cards) // Undermining democracy —> new political movements are appearing (environmentalists) making the strongest countries in the world ask for the need of other countries because they can’t deal with global issues
SOCIAL/CULTURAL: In general there is more equality in society and life quality has improved // There’s more environmental concern and the question of immigrants (do they belong to their parent’s country or to the one where they were born?) // False sense of security in nationalisms like Catalonia.