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Ch. II What is Culture is a way of life of a group of people. A cultured society appreciates fine art, dance, drama, and intellectual discourse and develops institutions that support them such as museums, theaters, and schools. Although culture as used here does not exclude the arts, its meaning is much broader. Defining Culture Tylor proposed one of the earliest definitions as that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.

Levels of Culture-Manifest Culture containing easily observable elements such as behaviors, language, music, food, and technology. The manifest culture represents the first contact with a new culture, for example, people's speech, dress, interactions with each other, and possessions. The Expressed Values Level represents how people in the culture explain the manifest level. Culture's own explanation of itself. Basic Assumptions these are the foundation of the culture:shared ideas and beliefs about the world and society as a whole that guide people's thoughts and actions. How is Culture Learned-Enculturation is a nonintentional process that includes all of the learning available as the result of what the environment to be learned. Primary Socialization which is a more intentional learning process than enculturation, occurs in the family and local community. We learn appropiate age, gender, ethnic, and social class behavior from our families, friends, schools, and religious institutions, as well as from advertising and television. Parents try to teach their children what is right but they rarely consider that correct behavior is cultarally determined or that they are intentionally reproducing their culture. Culture is so much a part of everyday life that trying to identify our own culture is often difficult. Secondary Socialization occurs after primary socialization and usually equips people with knowledge, skills, and behavior to enact adult roles successfully, particularly family and occupational roles. Frameworks for Examining Cultures because understanding a culture's basic assumptions is important for understanding the culture itself. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's Variations in Values Orientations developed a framework of 6 dimensions to describe the values orientation of a culture. The Values Orientations represent how different societies cope with various issues or problems. 1 Relation to Nature as varying among subjugation, harmony, or mastery. For exam; the Inuit. Subjugation Orientation whatever happens to them is inevitable; they accept nature as it is rather than try to change it. Harmony with nature, such as the chinese, attempts to orient behavior to coexist with nature. Mastery Cultures North America and Western Europe attempt to change aspects of the environment through technology when necessary or desirable. Canadian society demonstrate an almost equal preference for harmony and mastery in relation to nature. 2 Time Orientation dimension is a society's focus on the past, present, or future. Past Orientation emphasizes tradition and using time-honored approaches-Italians. Present Oriented culture generally focuses on the short term-U.S. Future Oriented society emphasizes the long term-Japanese. 3 Basic Human Nature assesses a culter's belief in people as good, evil or neutral/mixed. Good is basically trusting one-Japan. Evil there is a lack of trust-New York. Mixed or Neutral Orientation believes people are basically good, but, in some situations they behave in an evil manner-Canada. 4 Activity Orientation is either doing, being, or containing/controlling. Doing emphasis is on action, achievement, and working-U.S. Being emphasizes enjoying life and working for the moment; people work to live rather than to live to work-Mexico. Containing/Controlling emphasizes rationality and logic-French. 5 Relationship Among People can be individualistic, group or hierarchical. Individualistic societies define themselves through personal characteristics and achievements-U.S.Group oriented society, a positive relationship to the collective is important. Emphasis is on harmony, unity, and loyalty-Japan. Hierarchical societies also value group relationships but emphasize the relative ranking of groups within an organization or society as a whole, making them more class conscious than group societies-India. Space Orientation dimension indicates hoe people relate to the ownership of space. Public space belongs to everyone-Japanese. Privacy it is important to have their own space-U.S. Mixed views on space fall somewhere in the middle, and there is a combination of public and private spaces-Hong Kong. Geert Hofstede's Dimensions of Cultural Values classic study of dimensions of cultural values focuses specifically on work-related values. Individualism/Collectivism in Individualistic countries, people have concern for themselves and their families, rather than others-UK.  Collectivistic cultures value the overall good of the group because the expectation is that people should subordinate their individual interests and needs for the beneft of the group-Mexico. Ingroup is someone with whom a person has an affective relationship. Outgroup member is a person with whom there is no recognized relationship often a stranger. Power Distance which ranges from small to large, is the extent to which less powerful memebers of organization accept the unequal distribution of power. Small Power Distance society is less comfartable with power differences such as class distinction or organizational ranking than a large power distance culture. Uncertainty Avoidance which ranges from strong to waek, indicates the preferred amount of structure. Weak Uncertainty Avoidance culture is more flexible, people are more easy going, and a wide range of behaviors is acceptable. Masculine society the tough values including success, money, assertiveness, and competition are dominant. Feminine cultures place importance on tender values such as personal relationships, care for others, the quality of life and service. Chinese values related to Confucianism. In long term oriented country such as Japan, companies take a farsighted view of investments, and it is not necessary to show profits every year, but rather, progress toward a future goal is most importan. Embedded societies people view others as inherently part of collectives. Autonomy cultures see individuals as autonomous, bounded entities who find meaning in their uniqueness. Hierarchy uses a social system with clearly defined roles to make sure people behave responsibly. Egalitarianism people generally think each other as moral equals sharing basic human interests. Mastery encourages its members to master, change, and exploit the natural and societal environment for personal or group goals. Harmony emphasizes understanding and fitting in with the environment, rather than trying to change it. Individualistic the focus is on self, personal freedom and competitiveness. Communitarian emphasizes group membership. social responsibility, harmonious ralationships, and cooperation. High-Context communication or message is one in which most of the info is either in the physical contet or internalized in the person, while very little is isn the coded, explicit, transmitted part of the message-Saudi Arabia. Low-context communication is just the opposite, the mass of the info is vested in the explicit code-Swiss.The World Values Survey is a long-term, large-scale study of sociocultural and political change that is investigating basic values and beliefs of people in more than 65 societies on all six inhabited continents, containing almost 80% of the worlds population. Cultural Metaphors outsiders can describe & understand the feature of society by understanding the metaphors. one example is the metaphor of American football for the U.S. Brown's list of human universals challenges but does not eliminate the role of culture as an explanation of behavior in societies and organizations. The U.S. is considered highly individualistic in all three frameworks, giving more confidence in this classification. However, France varies from individualistic in the hofstede model to collectivistic on Trompenaar's dimension to hierarchical in the kluckhohn and strodbeck framework. Because of individual differences, it is possible that a person from a country with strong uncertainty avoidance could have a lower score than someone from a weak uncertainty avoidance country. Cultural dimensions can also explain differences in individual people's behavior within the same country. Forces of Convergence technology increases communication. Products are sold worldwide ad in some cases marketed in the same way everywhere. Forces for Divergence cultures usually attach different meanings to what appear to be the sme behaviors. Implications for Managers understanding diverse cultures as they affect organizational behavior is critical management skill.

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