The first thing that I am going to talk about is that European Powers met at the congress of Vienna, they decided that because it evolved to The political system. This was the return to the political system of the Ancien Régime, Which had been imposed by the European powers (Austria, Prussia, Russia and Great Britain) after defeating Napoleon in 1815.During the Restoration ,2 European Alliances were formed: The Holy Alliance made up of Russia,Prussia and Austria and The Quadruple Alliance made up of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Bitain.
After that, The revolutions that took place in Europe during the 19th century were due the fact that many citizens did not accept the Restoration or the return of the Ancien Régime and they were based on the Following ideologies: Liberalisim defends the liberties of the individual, represented The interest of the bourgeoisie and the principles were: drawing up a constitution, constitutional monarchy, separation of powers. Moderate liberals: restricted vote to high Property ownership, shared sovereignty between the Courts and the King, Limited freedom of expression. And progressive liberals: restricted vote But with lower property ownership, sovereignty only for the people, without Restrictions on freedom of expression. The second ideologie is Nacionalisim, defends the right of the people to form independent nations and To create their own states.
Nation-state based on common links and There is Unification nationalism and
Separatist nationalism. And the last ideologie is Democracy That proposed the political Participation of the whole population to end the social and economic Inequalities caused by bourgeois liberalism. Also Universal manhood Suffrage and Republic As a form of government. In 19th Centuty appeared three political revolutions. In 1820 the liberal revolutions That ocurred in Portugal and in Spain aimed to establish constitutional monarchies. In 1829, through the Treaty of Adrianopolis , Greece achieved independence from The Ottoman Empire. After that in 1830, In Belgium there was a nationalist revolution to achieve independence from Holland. And a constitutional monarchy was established. In 1848 the revolutions became more radical, as the petite bourgeoisie and workers Advocated democratic principles to access political power and The revolution Failed in all the countries except in France. In France thanks to the petit Bourgeoisie and the workers achieved a triumphal revolution, Second republic Was established.