Expedite the economic, cultural and social development of ACP States

Classified in Geography

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1.1 Environmental movement: 

A social and political movement that seeks to protect and improve the quality of the environment. 


Environmental value system:

A worldview  that shapes the way an individual or group of people perceive environmental issues. This will be influenced by cultural, religious, economic and socio-political context.

  • Conservationist: Their emphasis was on the sustainable use of the environment and the management of its resources to allow for future development.

  • Preservationist: They advocate for the preservation of land and its resources in pristine untouched condition. 

EVS Main approaches:

  • Ecocentric (nature centred):  They say that humans need to work within natural systems to conserve the ecological processes on which all life depends. Inside the ecocentric view there are two sides.

  • Deep ecologists: It is an approach that considers the human being as part of the land in which he lives and that is why he must take care of it.

  • Soft ecologist: They believe that humans can extract resources from the nature but controlling and balancing ourselves. They believe that if we take a resource of the nature for our benefit, we have to return it.

  • Anthropocentric (people centred): They believe that humans need to manage the global system in a sustainable way. Through the use of government regulation as paying taxes.

  • Technocentric (technology centred):Their view is that technology will provide solution to environmental problem even if humans effects are pushing natural systems.

  • Cornucopians:  Believe that humans can afford any situation. 

Environmental managers: Consider the earth as a garden 


  • Historical Influences

    • WWF: world wide fund for nature

    • Silent Spring: Rachel Carson (1962)

      • No birds, DDT (pesticide)

      • Bald Eagles and peregrine falcons in the US

        • *DDT is used to kill the mosquitos that then cause yellow fever, prevents*

    • Minamata Bay disaster in japan (1956-1968)

      • Chisso corporation

      • Mercury and methylmercury in water

      • Fish contaminated → people ate from these fish were contaminated.

    • Chernobyl disaster (1986)

      • Reactor in a power plant exploded

      • Radioactive particles sent into the atmosphere

      • Areas contaminated: Ukraine, Belarus and Russia.

      • Evacuation - still exposed and under exclusion

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