-Aulos:warship wine god. Lyre:apollo god. Kithara: Ellios god.
-Gregorian Chant: monophonic texture. -syllabic: one syllable. Neumatic: 2 or 4. Melismatic: +5. -Remember: religious text written in latin, monophonic texture, no regular metric accent, vocal music without instruments, anonymus composers. -secular music: -Trubadour: composer- poet who speak in occitanlanguage. 11th -13th century
• Troubadours: south of France (12th century)
• Trouveres: north of France
• Meistersingers: Germany
-One of the most important: BERNART OF VENTADORN.
Troubadours and trouveres songs: Characteristics: Vernacular languages, Monophonic textur with instrumental accompaniment, Marked rhytm. -Courtly love: epic love poems. -Spanish medieval music: Cantiga: Composition about miracles of Mother Mary. -Typical instruments:
- String: LUTE, HARP, VIELA. -Wind:RECORDER, CHIRIMÍAS, BAGPIPE, TRUMPET. Percussion: DRUMS. -The birth of polyphony: • In the late 9th century Polyphony appeared in Western Music. -Stages of Polyphony: Primitive polyphony (9th- 12th centuries), Ars Antique (12th- 13th centuries), Ars Nova (14th century). -Primitive polyphony (9th-12th):
Organum: this technic consist of adding a PARALEL VOICE below the Gregorian chant, Gregorian chant (melody): vox principalis, Paralel voice (accompaintment): vox organalis. Ars Antique (12th- 13th centuries):
Evolution of musical notation: duration of the sounds, Most important musical centre: Notre Dame School, Composers: Leonin and Perotin. Appeared the Motet: musical form with several voices that move
in different rhythms singing different texts. -Ars Nova (14th century):
Polyphony appeared also in secular music, Secular music became very important, polyphonyc forms of songs: CANON, BALLAD & CHANSON. Important composers: Philippe de Vitry, Guillaume de Machaut, Francesco Landini. -Renaissance: Artistic manifestation 15th and 16th centuries, Recover ideal of beauty and proportion from ancient Greek and Roman classic arts. Religious vocal music (Protestant
Reformation): Appeared the Protestantism Martin Luther: Charasteristics:
Simple composition based on popular melodies, Written for four voices in German, Homophonic texture. (Catholic Counter-
Reformation): Gregorian chant was the official singing of the Church, ¿Role of music?To help the devoted heighten their souls towards God. Main musical forms: Motet (4 voices, a capella), Mass (all the pieces of the liturgy): Kyrie Eleison, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei. Most famous composers: Palestrina and Tomás Luis de Victoria. Secular vocal music: Musical forms varied depending on the Country: Italy: Madrigal, France: Chanson, Characteritics of Madrigal and Chanson:
Relationship between text and music. Spain: Romance, Villancico,
Ensalada. Instrumental music: Instruments and their techniques were improved, The use of instruments still being used out of liturgy, Appeared the tablature. Authors started to compose music specifically for instruments: Luis de Narváez, Antonio de Cabezón. Instruments:Vihuela, Lute, Harpsichord, Viola da gamba. Instruments (Renaissance chamber music). -Contributed to the development of instrumental music:Popular dance-Nobility-Social dance-Courtly dance. Most important dances: Pavane and Galliard.