+Explain the structure, function, process of the American "anthropology of education"

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8.1.5  Explain oxidative phosphorylation in terms of chemiosmosis

Oxidative phosphorylation describes the production of ATP from oxidised hydrogen carriers (as opposed to substrate level phosphorylation)

When electrons are donated to the electron transport chain, they lose energy as they are passed between successive carrier molecules

This energy is used to translocate H+ ions from the matrix to the intermembrane space against the concentration gradient

The build up of H+ ions creates an electrochemical gradient, or proton motive force (PMF)

The protons return to the matrix via a transmembran enzyme called ATP synthase

As they return they release energy which is used to produce ATP (from ADP and Pi)

This process is called chemiosmosis and occurs in the cristae

The H+ ions and electrons are combined with oxygen to form water, allowing the process to be repeated anew

8.1.6  Explain the relationship between the structure of the mitochondria and its function

Inner membrane:  Folded into cristae to increase surface area for electron transport chain

Intermembrane space:  Small space between inner and outer membranes for accumulation of protons (increases PMF)

Matrix:  Contains appropriate enzymes and a suitable pH for the Krebs cycle to occur

Outer membrane:  Contains appropriate transport proteins for shuttling pyruvate into the mitochondria

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