General anesthetics: Insensitivity to pain, loss of reflexes, amnesia, relaxation, loss of consciousness. Drugs used: Opioids: analgesia (Fentanyl). Anxiolytics: anxiolysis, sedation, muscular relaxation (BDZ). Antiemetics: Avoid vomiting, aspiration (Metoclopramide ). anesthetics General Terms: loss of consciousness, amnesia. STANDINGS: Inhalation: Liq. Volatile: halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane. Gases: nitrous oxide, xenon. Intravenous: propofol, thiopental, ketamine, etomidate, BDZ antest *. RAM. Inhalation: hypotension, respiratory depression, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, seizures. PROPOFOL. Mechanism of action: Unknown. Pharmacokinetics: Home-rapid elimination. Effects Central: More powerful q thiopental. Effects CV: Bradycardia, mortgage. Respiratory effects: Sleep. RAM: injection pain, depression CV elderly. THIOPENTAL ~ Etomidate: Mechanism of action: GABA-mimetic. Pharmacokinetics: Top 40 Recovery 30. central effects: depression, sedation, hypnosis. Effects Inc.: mortgages. Respiratory effects: Sleep. RAM: Bronchospasm, Depression respiriratoria, anaphylaxis, vomiting. NO analgesia. OPIOIDS: Receivers: ? (?1, ?2, ?3) Ppal R being joined by the most powerful analgesics (opens potassium channels). Responsible for the analgesic activity and many reaccs. Secondary. ? (?1, ?2) In cerebral cortex (open potassium channels). (K1, K2, K3) Closed Ca + + channels. Responsablede spinal analgesia. STANDINGS: pure Ag: Mild / Moderate: Codeine, Dextropropoxyphene, Tramadol. Moderaro / severe: Morphine, Fentanyl, Methadone. Ag partial mixed: Pentazocine, Buprenorphine Nalorphine , Nalbuphine. Antagonisstas pure: Naloxone, Naltrexone. H1: smooth muscle, endothelium and brain. H2: gastric mucosa, cardiac muscle, mast cells and brain. H3: Presynaptic: brain, myenteric plexus and other neurons. ANTIH1: central and peripheral actions. Diphenhydramine, promethazine, chlorpheniramine, cyproheptadine, orphenadrine, clemizol. Without central actions: astemizole, terfenadine, ebastine, loratadine, Cetirazina. USES: rhinitis, urticaria, atopic dermatitis, Reacções. Anaphylactic asthma. EI: sleepiness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, tachycardia, hypotension, urinary retention, described fatal or serious poisoning. H2-blockers (CIMETIDICINA): Cimetidine, Ranitidine, Famotidine, Nizatidine.USES: gastro-duodenal ulcer, erosive gastritis, reflux esophagitis, gastric hemorrhage, preanesthesia. EI: Hyperprolactinemia, dizziness, temporal and spatial disorientation, confusion, hallucinations, impotence, decreased libido, gynecomastia.
Local anesthetics differentiate: latent period, duration of action, toxicity, potency, selectivity of blockade. RATED ester bond: cocaine, procaine, chloroprocaine, benzocaine, tetracaine. Amide bond: lidocaine, bupivacaine, prilocaine, mepivacaine, etidocaine, ropivacaine , levobupivacaine. short and low power action: Procaine and Chloroprocaine. action and medium power: Lidocaine, mepivacaine and prilocaine. accion long and high power: Tetracaine, Bupivacaine, etidocaine, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine. MECHANISM OF ACTION: Low permeability to ions MB sodium to a depolarization of it, depends on these factors: Location of administration, dose and concentration used, the anesthetic chars, Adding a vasoconstrictor, contact time. CHRONOLOGY OF BLOCKING: Increased cutaneous T ª, DV, Loss of sense of T st and relief of pain, loss of proprioception, loss of sensation of touch and pressure, loss of motor skills. PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS: Speakers at the function of all organs in which there are nerve impulse transmission (CNS, ganglia, neuromuscular junction). CNS: All cross the BBB. Lidocaine: DB: sedative and anticonvulsant. DM: Action on the CNS stimulant, anxiety and tremor which can lead to clonic seizures. DA: Cortical and subcortical depression that can lead to death from respiratory failure. Sist. CV: On DA myocardium: depressed contractility, decrease the volume. Minute and antiarrhythmic action. On vessel vd, mortgage, bradycardia and cardiovascular collapse. LOCAL REACTIONS: produced by anesthetic, Cocaine and drills vc mucosa. Or ignorance of the anatomy: inadvertent IV injection. SYSTEMIC REACTIONS: anesthetic blood reaches and reaches DA: Sist CV: Hipot, bradycardia and arrhythmias. CNS: euphoria Sens.bienestar +. Phase excitation + seizures followed by respiratory depression, coma and death. INTOXICATION TTO: Resp assisted xa diazepam seizures. TYPES OF A LOCAL: Topic: on broken skin or mucous membranes. INFILTRATION: small quantities in the area where you wish to speak. subcutaneously. REGIONAL: injected near a nerve trunk blocking the sensitivity in the area supplied by it. EPIDURAL: esp.epidural injected into the passes esp.subaracnoideo slow and blocks the nerve roots. Lidocaine and bupivacaine are injected into the lumbar region. SPINAL: esp.subaracnoideo injected back. ANTISEROTINICOS: Cyproheptadine: Directions: Sdr. Carcinoid, Sdr. rapid emptying, Postgastrectomy cold urticaria, skin allergies, migraine prophylaxis. EI: sedation, GI discomfort, weight increased. Ketanserin:Indications: hypertension, vasospasm. EI: Asthenia, weight increase, hypotension. Ondansetron: Indications: Nausea and vomiting in postoperative and chemotherapy. EI: Headaches, constipation, flushing. AG serotonin. Prostaglandins.