About fascism and nazism

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3. TOTALITARIAN REGIMES: FASCISM AND NAZISM Interwar period: some states governed by totalitarian regimes popular due to the economic, ideological and political crises. 3.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF TOTALITARIANISM : 1.Authoritarian regime. 2.Economic and social control.3.Ideological inequality.4nationalism and militarism.{Authoritarian regime= Charismatic leader: Believed infallible  Unlimited power .Examples: • Fuhrer Hitler  Il duce Mussolini .No freedom or political plurality:  A single political party . Opposition eliminated through repression and violence by paramilitary forces or political police.  Economic and social control: The state controls the economy and is anti-capitalist and anti- communist. Society is also manipulated through propaganda and censorship. A totalitarian state teaches the youth to believe in the system. Ideológical inequality and fanaticism: Some members of society are believed to be superior, for example a certain race is considered superior to others. >Symbols, uniforms, songs and slogans are used to unite supporters. NATIONALISM AND MILITARISM:The greatness of the nation is a reason to believe in the right of territorial expansion. This leads to a significant investment in weapons and military power. 3.2 ITALIAN FASCISM: BENITO Mussolini =Benito Mussolini, a journalist, founded the Fascist National Party in 1921.  Some of its members formed paramilitary groups (the fasci, also known as “black shirts”) which confronted the workers’ parties. Population was frustrated by the consequences of the Great War:Unemployment  Inflation,Strength of revolutionary movements.  1922: successful intervention of the fasci in the strikes organized by the trade unions > They became strong enough to organise a march into Rome. As a consequence, the king appointed Mussolini head of state and Mussolini imposed a fascist dictatorship. With the help of the political police (Ovra) he banned:  Trade unions, Political parties and  Any sort of opposition. Italian society was controlled through propaganda and censorship. 3.3 GERMAN NAZISM: Adolf Hitler = Adolf Hitler, an ex-soldier who fought in the First World War, founded the National Socialist Party in 1920. The party’s paramilitary section, called the SA, fought against communism. The party started gaining strength during the 1929 crisis, for which it blamed: The Jews,The communists and The democrats. 1932: the party won the elections with strong popular support.  1933: Hitler was appointed chancellor of Germany.  Hitler: Put an end to the Weimar republic,Proclaimed the Third Reich.  Imposed a severe dictatorship, eliminating all opposition:  With the help of the Gestapo (political police)  Sending opponents to concentration camps. Hitler:   Created strong social unity around the idea of the superiority of the Aryan race and the exclusion and persecution of Jews.   Controlled education, art and culture (propaganda and censorship)  Adopted an aggressive militaristic policy. Rejected the Treaty of Versailles and claimed that lebensraum (living space) was necessary for the expansion and survival of the German nation. His actions provoked the outbreak of the Second World War. 

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