THEORIES ON SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION (SLA): 1) CONSTRACTIVE ANALYSIS : Contrastive analysis is the systematic study of a pair of languages with a view to identifying their structural differences and similarities according to their phonetic systems, grammatical structures, vocabulary, writing, and culture. /GOALS: -to make foreign language teaching more effective. -to find out the differences between the first language and the target language based on the assumptions that: -foreign language learning is based on the mother tongue -similarities facilitate learning (positive transfer) -differences cause problems (negative transfer/
interference) -via contrastive analysis, problems can be predicted and considered in the curriculum.///// ERROR ANALYSIS: All people make language errors in both native and second language situations. An error is a systematic deviation made by the learner who has not yet mastered the rules of the target language reflecting the competence of the learner. These errors can be divided into three sub-categories: a)overgeneralization b) incomplete rule application c) the hypothesizing of false concepts that reflect a learner's competence at a certain stage and thereby differ from learner to learner.///// INTERLANGUAGE: An interlanguage is developed by a learner of a second language who has not become fully proficient yet but is approximating the target language: preserving some features of their first language, or overgeneralizing target language rules in speaking or writing the target language and creating innovations. It is a continuum between the first language and the target language along which all learners traverse.