State of nature: It is described as a place were people have freedom to do what they want and take advantage of the lack of authority, violent.
Theory of religious language; mmeaningful sentences need to use real words, they need to be arranged gramatically and they must be trying to communicate something. Language is an agreement. Ayers verification principle: A kind of test that a sentence must pass to count as genuely meaningful. To be meaningful it has to be a tautology and proved true or false, Strenght: About objects that lie beyond human experience are meaningless, cRITICISM: Seems too strong, We can verify if God exists by dying (Hicks eschatological verification) He states that religious statements can be verified, comes after our death in the next life, they are meaningful, Hicks parabole, only at the end of the journey we have verification. Wittgensteins thery: Argued that language is a way of representing facts, it was ridiculous for philosophers to rule out large parts of language because it couldnt be true by definition. Beauty art poetry. There is no such thing as "the" meaning. Criticism: If we use "I belief" in this way, then it is anti realism, the problem is that tle and platobeing anti realist about religious language dows not sit well with most believers. Hobbes: Negative view, we are violent, we make a rational decision to agree a social contract, powerful authority stops us, Ancient greeks; Being a good person is linked to being good at watever orle you play in society; The hunter, he is a good person... Virtue ethics: Aristotñe and Plato: We are all striving to live the best possible life for ourselves, trying to secure what is in our own interests. The circular argument. A rational person can figure out what he should do in a given circumstance. It accepts mistakes since we learn from them and thet it never really identifies what virtues are.