Flora4

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Coastal area
Chile is a country with an extensive coastline, couple of Arica to the Chacao Channel, and south dismembered.
Proximity to the sea that has made special climatic and coastal fog, little variation in temperature and salinity in the air.
Large North Coast
Far North Coast is rugged and desolate, with little vegetation except for an oasis of fog that occurs in the area Paposo, where a variety of vegetation due to coastal fog and the height of the hills of the Cordillera de la costa there.
Paposo
Place that is located 50 km north of Tal Tal, and 180 km south of Antofagasta.
For the geographical or the camanchaca coastal fog is abundant.
Because of this vegetation is there is more abundant than in the territories around it.
Near North Coast
It is a climate zone with Mediterranean characteristics but quite long dry summers.
The vegetation is growing to the south of this area.
The phenomenon of El Niño increases rainfall, thus increasing the vegetation is mainly evident in the coastal area.
Even in normal years there are more abundant vegetation in the coastal area inside.
Fray Jorge National Park
This park was declared by UNESCO as a World Biosphere Reserve, has an extraordinary natural phenomenon: a forest, valdiviano type in a coastal desert area of Region IV, 100 am south of La Serena.
The existence of this forest depends on the condensation of coastal fog, called camanchaca, as the rainfall of the area does not exceed 113 mm. year.
Canelos olivillos, Petrillo, and a variety of ferns, more than 1,250 survive km from its normal habitat in an area of 400 hectares approximately
Central coast
Like the Norte Chico has a Mediterranean climate, but with more abundant rainfall which results in greater numbers of plant species.
Echinopsis chiloensis ssp litoralis
Cacti
Quisco
Habitat: Grows on the coast of the IV and V region.
Description: Perennial plant columnar stems. Funnel-shaped flowers, on the north side of the stem, white. Fruit a berry.
Trees
Schinus latifolius
Anacardiaceae
Molle
Habitat: Grows in the Region IV to VII, in the foothills of the Coastal mountains and coastal plains.
Description: Perennial tree, dioecious up to 4 m high. Its branches are born almost at the base of the trunk. Leaves entire scalloped edges. Flowers grouped in clusters ivory white. Fruit a drupe.
Kagenekia oblonga
Rosaceae
Bollen
Habitat: From the Fourth to the Eighth Region from the coast to the foothills.
Description: Tree dioecious, tortuous branches, simple leaves with serrated leathery, light green for the beam and silver on the underside. Flowers solitary white. Fruit a multilocular five parts.
Schinus poligamus
Anacardiaceae

Huingos
Habitat: Grows III and Region X on the coast and the central valley.
Description: dioecious evergreen small tree or shrub up to 3 m high. The terminal branches are transformed into spines. Alternate leaves subcoriaceous. Creamy white flowers. Fruit purplish drupes.
Shrubs
Mirceugenia rufa
Myrtaceae
Habitat: From the IV to Region VI in the littoral zone. Rare.
Description: Perennial shrub up to 3m high, with small leaves that are covered with reddish hairs on the underside. Fragrant white flowers. Red berry fruit.
Myrceugenia corraefolia
Myrtaceae
Petrillo
Habitat: In coastal areas of Region IV to VII.
Description: Little tree or perennial shrub to 4 m tall, with gray trunk. Darker leaves the beam off a pleasant smell to touching them. White flowers solitary.
Azara celastrina
Flacurtaceas
Lilen
Habitat: In the region IV to VIII in streams of Coastal mountains and coastline.
Description: Perennial shrub to 3m high with serrated leaves, brilliant. Flowers in clusters, yellow scented flowers. Fruit a berry gray.
Pouteria splendens
Sapotaceae

Lúcumo wild
Habitat: Grows on the coast of the IV and V Region.
Description: Perennial shrub up to 5 m high dense foliage, dark green leaves on the top and lighter on the underside. Small whitish flowers. The fruit drupes yellow and then red, very striking.
Carica chilensis
Caricaceae

Wild papaya
Habitat: Grows in Region IV and V in moist ravines and slopes of the coast. Endangered species.
Description: Shrub of 1 to 2 m high with thick branches. Shaped leaves. Purple flowers, small, solitary or in clusters. Fruit a berry green.
Uses: The whole plant is used to feed cattle and poultry.
Sophora macrocarpa
Papilonaceas
Mayu
Habitat: From the IV to VIII Region from the coast to the foothills.
Description: Perennial shrub up to 3m high, with drooping branches. Compound leaves, gray-green. Yellow flowers.
Sphacele salviae
Labiatae
White sage
Habitat: It grows from the Fourth to the Metropolitan Region, in particular coastal sandy soils.
Description: Perennial shrub up to 1.5m tall, heavy branches, leaves ovate-lanceolate gray-green rough. Tubular flowers arranged in terminal inflorescences purplish blue. Fruit, four nuececitas blackish.
Baccharis concave
Composite
Vautro
Habitat: Grows on the coast and coastal range of Region IV to VIII.
Description: Perennial shrub dioecious up to 1 m high, covered with hairs and resinous. Leaves concave (as teaspoons) light green. Flowers in terminal corymbs on different floors according to gender. Fruit an achene with pappus.
Lobelia polyphylla
Lobeliaceas
Habitat: In the fourth region to the metropolitan area, especially on the coast.
Description: Perennial shrub with serrated edge blades. Purple flowers.
Haplopappus foliosus
Composite
Cachicabra
Habitat: In the IV Region VI, on the coast.
Description: Perennial Subshrub up to 80 cm high, with green upper leaves and less dry. Yellow flowers. Fruit an achene.

Solanum pinnatum
Solanaceae

Esparto
Habitat: The coast from the second to the V Region.
Description: Subshrub perennial up to 2m high slightly seconder. Leaves covered with hairs items. Flowers bright blue with yellow center. Rounded red berry fruit and bitter.
Climbers
Passiflora pinnatistipula
Passifloraceae
Passion
Habitat: Only in the V Region. Scarce.
Description: Climber provided with tendrils that can reach 6 m in height. Trilobed leaves, flowers large bluish-pink with a crown of purple filaments. Round edible fruit a berry.
Astephanus geminiflorus
Milkweed
Azahar's Quisco
Habitat: From the Metropolitan Region IV, entangled in bushes or cacti.
Description: Shrub, evergreen that can reach 2 m in height. Small highly scented flowers, from white to purple.
Herbaceous
Polyachyrus poeppigii
Composite

Tassel in pack
Habitat: In the IV to Region VI on the coast.
Description: Herbaceous perennial seconder to 1 m in height. Light green glossy leaves, fleshy. Flowers grouped in terminal clusters pale pink or white, fragrant. Fruit an achene.
Alstroemeria
Alstroemeriaceas
Alstroemeria magnifica
Alstroemeria hookeri
Alstroemeria cumingiana
Habitat: South American Genus, in Chile are more than half of the species.
Description: Plants rhizomatous perennials of different heights. Lanceolate leaves and twisted. Flowers consist of 6 tepals. Fruit a capsule.
Schizanthus litoralis
Solanaceae
Mariposita
Habitat: In the IV and V Region.
Description: Annual Plant 50 cm. pinatisectas high with leaves. The flowers are grouped in terminal clusters and are purple with a yellow spot on upper lip.

Cistanthe grandiflora
Portulacaceae
Pata de guanaco
Habitat: Coastal and interior in the III to VIII Region on the coast.
Description: Annual Plant very variable in size with leaves clustered towards the bottom of the stem. Flowers in racemes pink-fuchsia. Fruit a capsule.
Uses: In its leaves are attributed medicinal properties for bumps and bruises.
Oxalis carnosa
Oxalidaceas
Vinagrillo
Habitat: From the Second to the V Region.
Description: Herbaceous perennial to 20 cm, trifoliate leaves fleshy root, and yellow flowers.
Rhodophiala advena
Amaryllidaceae

Añuñuca
Habitat: In the Metropolitan Region V and the coast.
Description: Bulbous perennial to 30cm tall with linear leaves that are dried with the bloom. Flowers in umbels of up to 6 units of red-pink to yellow.
Orchids
Orchids
The Chilean orchids in general are rare species to be protected by avoiding cutting or removing from their places of origin and trying to preserve the places where they thrive.
Bipinnula fimbriata
Puya venusta
Bromeliaceas
Chagual boy
Habitat: Littoral Region IV.
Description: Herbaceous perennial very short stem surrounded by stiff gray leaves edged with agujon and pungent apex. Inflorescence on a stem deep pink. Purple flowers. Fruit a capsule. It grows in rocky places forming groups.
South Coast
Up the coast Chiloé are couples, and found Valdivian forest type that reaches the coast especially Olivillo.
In the southern part of the vegetation species impoverished south.
Further south towards the Pacific Ocean side are fens, dwarf cypress.
East of the Cordillera, we find only Patagonian steppe.
Aextoxicon punctatum
Aextocicaceas
Olivillo
Habitat: From the fourth to the tenth region especially on the coast.
Description: evergreen dioecious tree, up to 20 m tall. Leaves entire, coriaceous with scales on its underside. The flowers are arranged in clusters. Purplish drupes.


Lobelia Tupa
Lobeliaceas
Tupa
Habitat: From the V to the Tenth Region.
Description: Herbaceous perennial ashy hairy leaves, red flowers.
Latua pubiflora
Solanaceae
Latu
Habitat: coastal area in the Tenth Region. Endemic.
Description: deciduous shrub to 4 m tall, light green foliage with spines. Large flowers of red or pink, tubular. Green berry fruit.
Anemone hepaticifolia
Ranunculaceae

Star Flower
Habitat: coastal area in the Tenth Region.
Description: Herbaceous perennial rhizomatous palmate leaves, white flowers with purple stamens. Fruit an achene.
Jovellana punctata
Escrofulariáceas

Capachitos purple
Habitat: From the Eighth to the Tenth Region.
Description: Perennial shrub, 1.5 m high. Leaves opposite serrated margins and pale purple flowers dotted dark purple with a yellow moon on the lower lip.
Pilgerodendron
Cupressaceas
Cypress Guaitecas
Habitat: From Valdivia to Tierra del Fuego. In danger of extinction.
Description: Perennial tree can have up to 40 m tall. Small leaves arranged in pairs.
Uses: wood highly valued because it almost does not rot. It is used to build boats, docks and so on. Today only operates with the management plan.




Andes Mountains
The Andes mountain chain is the world's largest.
Walk over 7 thousand miles across America to die, cut by innumerable fiords and islands, at Cape Horn and the Antarctic Peninsula, becoming the backbone of our continent.
The imposing mountain range influences the climate of the region by limiting the passage of rainwater into the Argentine pampas.
The Andes mountains are decreasing in height from north to south, forming three areas: the highlands, the Andes of central Chile and the Patagonian Andes.
From Copiapo to the Sound of Reloncavi about.
It is characterized by cold climate and high solar radiation, rainfall is usually snow and hail.
The Andean region starts from the 2000 m height limit set by the timberline.
On this point there is almost no plant of more than 50 cm, are stunted and twisted branches, due to excessive radiation and the weight of snow.
Trees
Austrocedrus
Cupressaceae
Cypress Cordillera
Habitat: foothills of the Andes Mountains between 900 and 1800 m high. Endemic. Between the V and XI Region.
Description: evergreen monoecious tree with large leaves twigs entwined. Male and female flowers on the same tree. Fruit a strobilus that opens and lets out winged seeds
Kagenekia angustifolia
Rosacea

Frangel
Habitat: Range of central Chile
Description: Small tree to 3 m high, with linear leaves light green. Dioecious flowers arranged in panicles, white. Fruit a capsule crashed.
Cacti
Eriosyce curvispina
Habitat: Andean Cordillera between 1800 2300 m high. Vulnerable species.
Description: greenish gray spherical body with thick spines more or less curved. Flowers at the apex of cactus, yellow to red.
Austrocactus spiniflorus
Habitat: Cordillera de Santiago between 1500 and 2500 m high. Vulnerable species.
Description: Cactus low, with straight thorns, stems, stolons and flowers together side by large, white-yellow inside and reddish-brown on the outside
Maihuenia poeppigii
Habitat: Metropolitana Bio-Bio in volcanic or sandy soils.
Description: Perennial forming cushions, with cylindrical stems and thorny. Many flowers, yellow inside, red outside. Fruits, berries yellow.
Shrubs
Escallonia myrtoidea
Saxifragaceae
Habitat: From Coquimbo to Ñuble.
Description: A shrub or small tree 2 to 3 m high, with large glossy leaves. Flowers grouped into panicles of white. Fruit a capsule.
Chuquiraga oppositifolia
Composite
Habitat: Coquimbo Cordillera de Linares between 2000 and 3000m.snm
Description: Low shrub with two opposite leaves yellow spines in each armpit. Flowers yellow terminals
Berberis empetrifolia
Berberidaceae
Mountain Grape
Habitat: Coastal Range and Andes to 2300m, from latitude 30 º to Magallanes.
Description: shrublets low as 50 cm, gnarled branches and spines shorter than the leaves that are linear and hard. Yellow flowers in the leaf axils solitary. Fruit a berry blue.
Junellia spathulata
Verbenaceae
Habitat: Central Cordillera from Coquimbo.
Description: Shrub to 1m tall with bare branches cylindrical, with few leaves. Flowers and flower spikes of many fragrant white to pale purple. Fruit a nut.
Gaultheria pumila
Ericaceae
Chaura
Habitat: From Santiago to Magellan to the 3200 m high.
Description: shrublets padded under way. Simple leaves, leathery and flowers solitary, globose white.
Fruit a berry white or pink.
Guindilia trinervis
Sapindaceae
Chillies
Habitat: Mountain ranges available between 30 º and 37 º south latitude.
Description: shrublets to 1 m in height. Leaves with 3 nerves marked. Flowers yellow. Fruit capsule tricoca.
Viguera revoluta
Composite
Cerro Maravilla.
Habitat: Central Cordillera of Chile.
Description: Subshrub 60 to 80 cm high, with upright stems and few leaves. These are alternate, lanceolate. Yellow flowers. Fruit an achene.
Orites myrtoidea
Proteaceae
Radal dwarf
Habitat: Between Maule and Bio-Bio. Endangered species.
Description: A shrub branched from thick glossy leaves, small yellow flowers gathered in clusters. Fruit follicle.
Herbaceous
Gentiana prostrata
Genciamaceas
Habitat: De Atacama Magellan especially in Las Vegas between 3100 and 3600 m high.
Description: Small annual herb, 2 to 7 cm tall, erect stems that form small lawns. Tubular flowers white to purplish blue.
Calceolaria filicaulis
Escrofulariáceas
Capachitos
Habitat: In damp places in meadows or creeks, in the Cordillera de Coquimbo to Magellan.
Description: Perennial from 10 to 35 cm tall. Basal rosette leaves, wide ribbed marked. Yellow flowers, upper lip shorter and less bent inwards.
Calandrinia affinis
Portulacaceae
Quiaca
Habitat: The plains of Coquimbo to the Los Lagos region between 2000 and 3500 m high.
Description: Perennial herb, with leaves in rosette, linear sprung. Flowers white or pale pink with yellow center.
Mimulus luteus
Escrofulariáceas
Berro
Habitat: On the banks of streams, or between Atacama and Andean plains Llanquihue, up to 3500 m high.
Description: Perennial from 20 to 80 cm high
Ranunculus peduncularis
Ranunculaceae
Habitat: From Valparaiso to Tierra del Fuego in waterways and grasslands up to 2500m high.
Description: erect stems with large deeply divided leaves, yellow flowers.
Senecio fistulosus
Composite
Hualtatas
Habitat: marshes and meadows in the Andes.
Description: Perennial, up to 2.5 m tall with basal leaves toothed edge. Yellow flowers collected in corymbs. Fruit an achene.
Orchids
Alstroemeria
Tropaeolum
Violas
Ferns, mosses and lichens
South Andes
A landscape marked by volcanism, with plenty of water. The predominant species in this area until the 1300m high are Lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) and Ñirres (Nothofagus antartica) both deciduous species.
Also found in some sectors Araucarias (Araucaria araucana)


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