France Revolution

Classified in History

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THE EVENTS OF THE REVOLUTION:

1.The summoning of the Estates General 1789 THE BEGINNING OF THE REVOLUTION

2.The tennis court Oath 1789

3.The storming of a Bastille 1789

4.The National constituent Assembly 1789

5.The declaration of the Rights of man 1789 CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY/Phases Revolu.

6.Abolition of the Ancien Regime 1789

7.The first constitution of France 1789

8.Proclamation of the Republic 1792 DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC

9.The execution of Louis XVI 1793

10.The period of the “Right of Terror” 1793

11.The directory 1795 BOURGEOISIE REPUBLIC

12.The consulate 1799

13.Napoleon declares himself Emperor 1804

14.Ancien Regime finished and Constitutional Monarchy established 1991

Napoleon BONAPARTE(1799-1814/15):

Religion (Revolutionary idea):Napoleon guaranteed Religious freedom. Jews, protestants and Catholics could all co-exist in the New France. Church was controlled by the state and clergy was elected and pay By state.

Education(R.I):The state would determinate what to Study. Education for everyone (except women)

Economics(R.I):He wanted to simulate the economy and Serve the interest of the bourgeoisie. The state helped industry though tariffs And loans. He built roads and councils to develop infrastructure and Established the Bank of France.

Government (Authoritarian absolutist):Napoleon wanted National unification, controlled by a strong central government. He created an Army of officials, consisting of administrators, functionaries and bureaucrats, And placed them in every town and city. The entire nation was unified together Under a national administration.

Law(R.I,A.A):He wrote as an absolutist king/He took Articles written in the French Revolution: equality, freedom of religion, equal Opportunities.

THE RESTORATION

1814:Napoleon Was defeated

1814/15: The victors (Austria,Prussia,Great Britain). European monarchies met at the Congress of Vienna./ Treaty they signed=THE HOLY ALLIANCE.

Goals:

-They Wanted to restore the monarchic absolutism

-They Remodeled the European map: European borders come back to the boundaries in 1792.

-They Agreed than in the case a liberal revolution happened again any European Country they all had to help that country.

REVOLUTIONS OF 1820:

Main ideas that influence the revolution: Liberal and nationalist ideas.

Characteristic of the period: Socio economic problems./Bourgeoisie Opposed to absolutist kings.

Where? Spain, Greece, Portugal, Italy, Piedmont, Naples, German states.

Successful where? Why? Greece: Greece was recognized as a Sovereign  nation in 1832.

Failure where? Why? Spain was the first: Liberal Uprising led by General Riego./ Congress of Verona sent French soldiers(100000 Sons of the st Louis) to restore the absolutism. Rebels were defeat/ Portugal, Italy (Piedmont and Naples) German States. Here the revolutions were crushed by The Army.

REVOLUTIONS OF 1830:

Main ideas that influence the revolution: Liberal and nationalist ideas.

Characteristic of the period: Socio economic problems. / Bourgeoisie opposed to absolutist kings.

Where? France, Belgium, Poland.

Successful where? Why? France: A liberal revolution deposed King Charles X and replaced him with a more liberal oriental king: Louis Philipp I. France Become a constitutional monarchy.

Failure where? Why? Poland: they declared themselves Independent from Russia but the rebellion was suppressed and Poland was given Even less freedom than before.

REVOLUTIONS OF 1848:

Main ideas that influence the revolution: Socialism appeared (Marx-Engels: Communist manifest)/Nationalism became stronger/ideas spread quicklier.

Characteristic of the period: Technology changes/New class: Proletarian/Crop failures in 1846/Radical politicians(called democrats)were Looking for greater changer in the parliamentary governments (universal Suffrage, sovereignty of the people and social equiality).

Where? France, Poland, German states, Australian Empire, Italy, Piedmont.

Failure where? Why? France: the second republic was Proclaimed but Napoleon III, the president, became the ruler of the second French Empire./Hungary: gained autonomy (into the Austria-Hungarian Empire).It Was the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history, but the Revolutions failed.

The unification of Italy

The unification of Germany

Situation before

All the congress of Vienna Italy had been organized into seven separate states under different Governments.

It was divided into 39 states under different governments.

-They shared a Common language, culture and history.

Why? Main movements

1820-The Carbonari(coal burners) revolutionary group dedicated to the unification of Italy as one nation. This was the Risorgimento, a nationalistic movement.

There was also a Romantic movement.

(The Industrialization had began)

When

1870

1871

Who?

Covour(Prime Minister of Piedmont-sardinia), Mazzini and Garibaldi(Italian politicians)

Otto von Bismarck(Prussian chance)

The unification of Italy

The unification of Germany

Process?

1859 Cavour had begun a war Against Austria. This was defeated and Lombardy was annexed to Piedmont-Sardinia. 1860 Tuscany, Parma and Modena(taken over by Cavour)+ Two Sicilians and part of the Papal States(conquered by Garibaldi) were annexed. 1866 Veneto. 1870 Istria (the unification was from North to South)

1834 Several states formed the Zolluerein (a parliament union which tried to promote trade between the Separate states). 1848 Some revolutionaries created the parliament of Frankfurt that failed. 1864 war against Denmark. 1866 war against Austria. 1870 war against France.

After unification?(type of Government, the head of state and the capital city).

In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II the King of Piedmont was proclaimed king of Italy. It was declared a Constitutional monarchy. Rome was declared the capital of the unified state In 1871.

In 1871, King Cuilhem I of Prussia Was named the German Kaiser and Germany became a federal state with a Constitutional monarchy. Berlin became the capital.

The Spanish king Ferdinand VII died in 1833. He left the throne to his daughter, but a Previous law prevented women from becoming monarchs…

CARLISTS

ISABELINOAK

They demanded the Coronation of Don Carlos, Ferdinand’s brother.

They demanded the Coronation of Isabella II, Ferdinand’s daughter.

They were supported By the absolutist: the peasants, a part of the nobility and the middle and Low clergy.

They were supported By the liberals: the citizens, the high nobility, the high clergy, the Administration and almost the army.

These people were Afraid that with the new queen, the Ancien Regime and their privileges would Disappear.

These people were in Favour of a more liberal system.

The majority of the Basques supported the Carlist ideas because they were frightened that with The liberal laws (the same law for everyone, everywhere) the foruak would Disappear.

Consequencees of these different demands.(on the war)

-A Civil War took Place between 1833-39 and 1873-76. Both wars ended in liberal victories.

-In 1841, Navarre Ceased to be kingdom and was turned into a province.

-Alfonso XII Returned as king of Spain.

-As a punishment for Supporting the Carlits in 1876, Canovas del Castillo weote a law abolishing The foral system. This name, the entire foral system of araba, bizkaia and Guipuzkoa was abolished: the customs were moved to the coast, the “pase Foral” and the law of military exemption desapeared(Basque men had to take Part in Spain was involved in wars), a provisional “Kontzertu Ekonomikoa”(a System of fixed fiscal agreements) was established… 

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