Causes of the French Revolution:
1.Taxation system: The system of Administration and taxation in the kingdom meant that it was impossible to Obtain more taxes and the Third Estate was unable to play more.
2.American war: French indolent in the American war of independence resulted in a victory against Britain but caused a New financial crisis because of the expense of fighting so far away. Consequently, the American Revolution was a cause of the French one, because it Damaged economy.
3.Prices increase: Crop failures and Severe winters were bad. Peasants and urban poor were affected. The cost of Food and living had doubled. Markets’ led to a financial crisis and an increase In unemployment.
The Beginning of the revolution: (1789)
The Privileged classes refused to accept the tax reform. There was a meeting of the Estates General (representatives of the three estates), to approve a tax Reform. In this institution the vote was carried out by estate. However, in Order to increase its representation, the three estate requested individual Suffrage. But king, nobles and clergy rejected the request. Therefore, the Thirt Estate proclaimed themselves the Nation Assembly (representatives on the Nation). They met on a tennis court and they made the Tennis Court Oath. It started That they wouldn’t disband until a constitution that reflected their demands Was drawrup. The people of Paris supported the Assembly, and they stormed the Bastille, where political prisoners were detained. In rural France, the Peasants rebelled against the aristocracy. Later that year, Louis XVI Recognized the CONSTITUENT NATIONAL ASSEMBLY’S legatine.
Phases of the revolution (1789/99)
Revolution: Liberalism. Different ways of organizing the estate:
1.Constitutional monarchy (1789/92): Census suffrage: Rich people Remove the Ancien Regime and impose moderate Liberalism.
2.Democratic republic(1792/94): Democratic society. Universal mal suffrage: all men over 25 years could vote. Radical politics.
3.Bourgeois republic (1794/99): Moderate bourgeois gained power.
The first French republic:
Comity of public Safete
Council of five. Hundred/eiders
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC(1792-94): Louis XVI his family escaped in disguise, but were eventually arrested and Taken back to Paris.
The Girondist Convention(Moderate): The Sansculottes arrested the king proclaimed the Republic. Power went To the moderate revolutionaries (Girondists), elected by universal mal Suffrage, who created the Nation Convention.
The Jacobin Convention (Radicals): The radical revolutionaries (Jacobins) took power. They ruled thorough The Comitee of Public Safety. The Rule of Jacobin Terror lasted for several months as they pursued and executed all The enemies of the revolution.
A new constitution based on social Democracy was approved by universal male suffrage. Social laws(Law of the maximum). A new calendar was even started And the cult of the goddess of reason was established.
The Sans-culottes belonged to the poorest social group and their name comes from The fact that they wore trousers, not culottes as they upper class did.
The fail Of the Jacobins: The Majority of the bourgeoisie were opposed to the Jacobins and their violent Methods of rule. In July, the bourgeoisie led a coup to remove the Jacobins From power and put an end to the political persecutions. Robespierre and other Jacobin leaders were tried and executed.
The Bourgeois republic(1794-99): The conservative bourgeoisie retook power. Its leaders implemented a new constitution. Under the now government, Executive power was very strong.
The Government on two sides: 1.The privileged sector, which awaited the return of The monarchy. 2. The Sans-culottes, who preferred the Jacobin government.