1.THE ARMED PEACE IN EUROPE
Between 1870 and 1914, although there was peace, tension between European Countries was growing. In fact, in this period countries were dedicating a Large part of their production to manufacturing weapons.
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE GERMAN EMPIRE: During the Armed Peace Period the role of German was very important and it become the most important Power in Europe after its unification, because of its economic and military Development.
-THE BISMARCKIAN SYSTEM (1871-1890): the German emperor Wilhelm I Used diplomancy to mantain the balance of power between European powers. The Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, established a system of alliances with the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Russian Empire and Italy, known as the Bismarckian Alliance system, objectives:
-mantain German hegemony.
-to prevent France from declaring war to Germany to Recovering some losted territories.
With his foreign policy, Bismarck managed to avoid conflict in Europe for 20 years.
However, in order to do this, he had to strenghten the German army. This Forced the other European countries to build up their armies too because if They did not, their armies would be weaker tan the German army if there was a War. This was knwn as the arms race.
-THE EXPANSIONIST FOREIGN POLICY OF WILHELM II (1890-1914)
In the second phase, the German emperor, Kaiser Wilhelm II,who came to the Throne in 1888, changed the system of alliances for an expansionist policy.
Bismarck disagreed with Wilhelm II so he resigned from his position in 1890.
Wilhelm II didn´t renew the Reinsurance Treaty with Russians because he Thought Russia would be alliated with France. Then Russia and France become Allied because of a France´s investment in Russian industry.
Finally, the political hegemony of Wilhelm II caused concern in France and Great Britain, and they formed the Triple Entente, in 1907, with Russia, to Stop Germany´s expansión.
2.THE FIRST World War
Also called the Great War, was fought between 1914 and 1918. Various European countries and their Asian and African colonies, the US, Japan, and Some Latin American republics, that is why this war is called World War.
CAUSES: during the Armed war countries competed for the control of some Territories and this became sources of tensión.
-Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Russian Empire competed for the control of the Balkans, and at the same time Serbia was angry because of the expansión to this área, this led to crisis in The Balkans.
-France wanted to recover the Región of Alsace-Lorraine. France and Germany also competed for control of Colonies, like Morocco, which lead to 2 crisis in there.
-Great Britain saw the Supremacy of its merchant navy threatened when the German Empire, constructed a Large fleet of merchant ships to dominate international trade.
All this created a pre-war atmosphere and the European powers were Preparated in case of war.
ALLIANCES DURING THE FIRST World War:
-THE CENTRAL POWERS: the Austro-Hungarian Empire allied with the German and Ottomn empires, joined by Bulgaria. Italy Promised to remain neutral after war broke.
-THE ALLIES: Serbia was allied with The Triple Entente, then they were joined by Belgium, Japan, Italy, Romania, The US, Greece, Portugal, China, and various Latin American republics.
PHASES OF THE WAR:
-INITIAL GERMAN OFFENSIVES: Germany Putt he Schlieffen Plan into effect, which consisted of launching a rapid Offensive on the Western Front (Belgium and north of France). When France was Defeated, German tropos advanced on the Eastern Front to fight the Russians.
German plan didn´t succeed because it was stoped at the First Battle of the Marne, and at the same time Japan occupied the German colonies in the Pacific And China.
-TRENCH WARFARE 1915-16: the Western Front between Germany and the Allies stablished and a ew phase of the War began, but they couldn´t advance so they built treches.
To break the Western Front, new military tactics were used to wear the Enemy down. They used battleships and submarines; in the Battle of Jutland, the Brtich fleet defeated the German fleet.
-INCORPORATION AND WITHDRAWAL OF ALLIES 1917: the US decided to join war.
In the same year, a political and social revolution in the Russian Empire Caused Russia to withdraw from the war after signing the Peace of Brest-Litvsk.
-THE END OF THE WAR AND THE ARMISTICE: The Second Battle of the Marne (thanks to American troops´ help).
THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
In 1917, the Russian Empire went through a revolutionary process which puta n end to the Autocracy government of Tsar Nicholas II.
BEFORE THE REVOLUTION: In 1900, the Russian Empire, this characteristics:
-The government was autocracy.
-The economy was semi-feudal.
-there was social unrest.
CAUSES: During the rule of Tsar Nicholas II (1884-1905), his autocracy power decreased because of:
-The Russo-Japanese War in 1904-1905.
-The apperance of political parties.
-The 1905 Revolution.
-Participation in the First World War.
THE 1917 REVOLUTIONS: In 1917 there was revolution which took place in 2 phases:
-THE FEBRUARY REVOLUTION: PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT
In February 1917, successful revolution