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32. The intention to speak. It's amazing how the child begins to understand sentences, pronounce words and how fast the language is so poor that begins to evolve and grow into something so complex. For Piaget, language is part of overall development, a semiotic capacity / more representative. In the beginning, the child's speech is egocentric, that is not cooperative, reflecting the intellectual self-centeredness of it, but will fade with age and become more cooperative and social. Thus for example Piaget observed the child talking to himself to understand and assimilate something. Vygotsky on the other hand felt that the language had a social origin, was the instrument of transmission of cultural experiences. Egocentric speech as he was the appropriation of social language, which later would fade and internalized. One of the functions of language would be mediation between people. Ultimately for Vygotsky language was the engine of development and that this would result higher mental functions. Since the birth of the child learns to draw attention to his different reactions: crying, screaming .... Thus the child from birth expresses his feelings through reflex reactions, which are a consequence, since the person in charge of these reflexes react to the child. Thus, the child learns, are creating situations that make regular child's learning, what Bruner calls "support system for the acquisition of language (SAAL)." This system may be associated with the ontogeny of children because it would not be possible without the surrounding culture and the context in which it is. There will then what Bruner called "proto" negotiation of meaning, interaction between child and adult, which will even further by language. They are called proto because the child used are sound, and still can not say words. After 10 months, the child will begin saying their first words. These first words will be in very specific contexts and in certain situations. For example, if the child sees a dog walking on the street, then you may see a cat and dog also call (or bow-wow), as the child associates the word dog in a given situation, giving a much more broader than ours. Once the child has a greater need for communication and more stimulating environment, the terminology will become more specific and more extensive, using each word in different situations and giving them a proper meaning. On the other hand, will not only use their first words to designate objects, but to show intentions, wishes, requests, relationships, .... For example, if the child says puree, you may also be signaling a desire: 'I eat' . Gradually through combinations of words expressing a growing knowledge about the world around him. Is gaining more and more words, and they assimilate the grammatical rules of their language. At five years, has virtually become the ground rules, but still some things escape you. However psycholinguist Chomsky had a theory opposed to that of Bruner, he called "Language Acquisition Device (LAD)" and was based on a nativist approach, focused more on the phylogeny and genetics of the child in the culture and context. According to him, the child has a natural ability to understand and eventually learn the language. The language is acquired because humans are biologically programmed to do so, we have specialized structures in the brain to the task.Given that Chomsky said that the imitations were used to learn from others and also that the corrections made by the adult child's errors were no good. Thus the pronunciation of the child were their own creations and not mere repetitions of other people. But the theories of Chomsky and Bruner can be supplemented so that the child having a communicative intention is evolving through the DAL and SAAL, always guided by their caregivers between there will be a negotiation of meanings, which can be correct or not but what the child learn.

32.De intend to speak. There is increasing evidence to say that the baby is programmed to "tune" with human speech. Before speaking, babies express their needs and feelings through the sounds they progress from crying to cooing and babbling (6 to 10 months) after the accidental imitation and later deliberate imitation (9 to 10 months) also increased their ability to recognize and understand speech sounds and use meaningful gestures. These first sounds without associated meaning is known as pre-linguistic speech. It is this stage, imitation made by parents or caregivers of the child sounds affects the rate of learning. It also helps the baby to grasp the meaning interactive conversation, take turns. Babies specifically react to human speech and by the time three days are able to distinguish the voice of his mother and prefer it to a stranger. Begin to discriminate different patterns of emphasis or certain rhythms and steady sounds like "ba" "da" and "ta" and prefer the sound of the mother tongue of another language. The ability to perceive differences between sounds is critical to language development and apparently, this ability starts in the womb. Before the children to connect sounds with meanings seem to recognize sound patterns they hear with some frequency as your name or mom or dad. By 6 months, infants have learned the basic sounds of language (losing sensitivity to other sounds that do not belong to his language) and begin to become aware of the phonological rules and to relate meaningful sound. At 9 months begin to use gestures that can accompany the sound. These progress from simple gestures like pointing or conventional social gestures with his hand to say goodbye, to nod or shake his head or representation made gestures like raising the arms to be held. Symbolic gestures like blowing to indicate that something is hot or aspire to make a flower often arise at the same time that babies speak their first words and works similarly to them. The gestures appear before children have a vocabulary of 25 words and are abandoned when the children can say the word instead of the gesture. Several studies seem to show that gestures are inherent in the process of language and appear to help babies learn to talk. Between 10 and 14 months or so babies say their first word. This is the period of speech in which linguistic expressions and convey meaning. Their initial repertoire may be restricted to "papa", "mama", or may be a syllable that contains more than one meaning depending on context, such as "pa" for "want out" or "Where's Daddy?". A word that expresses all thought is called holophrase. In this period to 18 months, the vocabulary will grow gradually. Sometime between 16 and 24 months there is a "vocabulary explosion" from the child to say about 50 words to say about 400.At this stage, the help of parents correctly repeating the words of the baby or lengthening sentences containing the word is essential to expand the vocabulary. The child-directed speech or baby talk, which occurs in many cultures and languages, a soft-spoken, with ups and downs exaggerated tone, with simplifications and short sentences and lots of repetition, seems to facilitate language acquisition. The next step is when the child joins two words to express an idea "Mommy pee." This milestone varies greatly from child to child as speech language, unlike the pre-linguistic speech, unlike the pre-linguistic speech, is not associated with chronological age. At first it is rather telegraphic speech consisting of a few key words such as function words ignoring / being, articles and prepositions. This omission does not mean that the words unknown but may find difficult to reproduce. Respect the syntactic order of words in a sentence. Between 20 and 30 months children show increasing competition in the syntax and use of function words. Also become more aware of the communicative purpose of language and if your words are being understood. By three years the talks is very fluid, more extensive and complex, but omit parts of speech, manage to convey very well what they want.

33. Concept of addiction: behavioral characteristics and evolution in the first year of life. Attachment is the emotional bond that develops the child with his parents (or caregivers) that provides the emotional security necessary for the development of psychological and social skills. It is purely cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and these components not only ensure the proper psychological development of children but also ensures the survival and emotional security of the infant. The attachment has a number of behavioral characteristics: · Strive to maintain proximity to the person which is linked • Maintain contact with the figure privileged sense of attachment security · Base from which to explore the physical and social world. · Shelter in the attachment figure for comfort and safety to danger or threat. The first to develop an attachment theory to explain why children become emotionally attached to their primary caregivers and the negative emotional effects resulting from separation, was John Bowlby.'s proposed model was based on Bowlby existence of four sets of interrelated behaviors: the system of attachment behaviors, the scanning system, the system of fear of strangers and the affiliative system: - The system of attachment behavior refers to behaviors that are associated proximity and contact with the attachment figure (smiles, cries, tactile contact, etc.).. These behaviors are activated with increasing distance from the child regarding the attachment figure or situations of threat. This mechanism serves to restore proximity. - The scanning system consists of exploring the outside world. Babies begin to understand the world around them not only watching but also by using the senses (objects are put in the mouth, touching everything in sight). This system is closely related to the system of attachment behaviors, they show a certain incompatibility: when activated attachment behaviors decreased exploration of environment .-The fear system is the degree to which the child acts with strangers in the presence or absence of attachment figures. This system also has to do with previous systems, because its appearance is a decrease in exploratory behavior and increased attachment behaviors. - The affiliative system refers to the interest shown by individuals, by maintaining proximity and interact with other subjects. The attachment is not just an instinctive behavior that is activated in the presence of a given stimulus, but also part of a set of behaviors whose activation or deactivation depend on individual and social characteristics. As for the evolution of attachment, one can speak of a sequence of 4 stages: 1. The phase occupies the first quarter of life (0-3 months): This stage has a preference for members of the species itself. 2. The phase occupies the 2 nd quarter of life (3-6 months): It has a preference for familiar shapes without rejecting outsiders. The baby begins to recognize faces, voices and smells. This child's ability to recognize faces, it helps to discriminate the attachment figure to strangers. 3. Stage from 6 to 12 months: The infant shows a preference for the attachment figure and rejects outsiders. The separation creates a series of sensations in the child (anxiety, fear ...) and activation mechanisms such as crying to maintain contact with the attachment figure 4.. From the first year: The baby takes a certain degree of autonomy. Independence is having the attachment figure, to be able to communicate verbally, and be able to move about freely.

Although we know that attachment occurs 6 to 12 months, we can speak of a postfase, independence will be achieved by the new features that have the child and locomotion skills, verbal and intellectual, the child will remain unchanged until the independence. After 30 months reduces the manifestations of attachment, emerging only at certain times. Finally it is worth mentioning that in studying the attachment itself, and in childhood we see a parallel relationships we establish in adulthood. In addition, Bowlby argues that in every relationship, the person constructs a model of itself and a model of another. Therefore, the attachment is not only typical of childhood.

34. The paradigm of strange types of attachment. Limitations of the model. The fundamental thesis of attachment theory is that the state of security, trust, fear or anxiety of a child is largely determined by the accessibility and responsiveness of its main figure of affection. When Bowlby refers to the presence of the attachment figure means no real presence immediately, but both immediate accessibility, the attachment figure should not only be accessible but must respond appropriately to their needs and demands. Attachment relationships they establish with their caregivers almost all children clearly differ in quality, ie, there are individual differences in attachment quality, then we might ask: Does it affect the quality of attachment in the subsequent development?. To answer this question the researchers first had to find appropriate ways to measure (evaluate) the quality of attachment. The technique used to measure (evaluate) the quality of attachment to their caregivers have been established for children one to two years old, is the procedure of the "Strange Situation" by Mary Ainsworth and colleagues, after experimentation, the results as they were expected to conclude that: the child uses the mother as a secure base for exploration and the perception of any threat activated attachment behaviors and to disappear exploration. With all these data Ainsworth et al. postulated four types of attachment. The "Strange Situation "is the experimental paradigm par excellence of attachment theory, is a laboratory situation of approximately 25min. duration in a series of eight episodes (3min. c / u) in which attempts to simulate natural interactions (meetings / separations, carers / outsiders) who exposed the child to determine the type of attachment has been established. By recording and analyzing the behavior (responses) of children in these episodes, a professional observer characterized the child's attachment to the caregiver in one of four categories of attachment that Ainsworth et al postulate. - Secure attachment: fixed link between the child and caretaker which is characterized by the child appreciates the close contact with a partner, and use this person as a secure base to explore the environment. The child can be with strangers if the mother is present. - Resistant attachment: insecure attachment between child and caretaker which is characterized by the protests of the child before separation and a tendency to remain close, but resist the contact initiated by the caregiver, especially after a separation. Children with resistant attachment behave quite unpredictably to strangers, even when the mother is present. - Avoidant, insecure attachment between caregiver and child is characterized by little protest to separation and a tendency to avoid or ignore the caregiver. These children are sometimes sociable with strangers but usually ignored or avoided as well as their caregivers. - Anxious-disorganized attachment: insecure attachment between child and caregiver characterized in that the child is disoriented before the meeting (child-caregiver-odd) and for the caregiver as soon as it avoids sharply, ie, there is a combination of avoidance and resistance patterns reflecting the approach or avoid confusion between the caregiver. Practically any child of any sample taken in an investigation from getting out of one of these categories, yet the procedure of the "Strange Situation" has received some criticism for its limitations to what many researchers are in favor of using new measures attachment alternatives. The paradigm of the "Strange Situation" has some limitations, among these, was criticized at first because it is a form of evaluation in children too embarrassing and potentially invalid, secondly the behavior of children in these situations are exaggerated and representing the child's daily routine behavior, third is not useful for classifying children over two years and finally a procedure "too expensive". Since these limitations have emerged recently has become very popular alternative to other means of evaluation of the quality of attachment the "Battery Attachment Q" which is a method of observing the child's attachment behaviors at home. It is valid for children aged one to five years of age, this mode of assessment than some of the limitations of the "Strange Situation" but not all. Importantly, data from the "Battery Attachment Q" often coincide with those obtained in the "Strange Situation".

35. The concept of object permanence and its development. The concept of object permanence refers to our knowledge that the objects have an existence that is independent of our perception (regardless of whether we see it, hear, touch, taste and smell) . This toy does not cease to exist because we can no longer feel it.Piaget says that the acquisition of the notion of object is to be understood within the construction space where the objects and in the context of development of intelligence and use his theory of intellectual development consists of stages in which three aspects: conception of the object as an entity in itself that exists and moves in space, the independence of this order regarding the child's action and the role of self (child) as an object in space. The stages of Piaget's theory are: Stage 1: Sensorimotor Stage (0 - 2 years), the intelligence of the child during this stage is prtáctica, linked to the sensory and motor action. The key achievements are the establishment of intentional conduct, the construction of the permanent object concept and the first performances, and access to the symbolic function. Children understand the world primarily through the actions they take it. Innate reflexes will result in increasingly complex patterns. Step 2: preoperative Stadium (2 - 7 years), is characterized by the progressive development of the processes of symbolization (reading and writing), not yet integrated into logical structures. This stadium has limitations such as cognitive egocentrism, lack of reversibility, insensitivity to the contradiction and intuitive reasoning. The child can now use representations (thinking) rather than overt actions to solve problems. Step 3: The stage of concrete operations (7 - 11 years), highlights the overcoming of selfishness, the appearance of logic and reversibility. With the advent of trading, the child acquires a set of internal actions necessary mental solving logic problems. Stage 4: The stage of formal operations (from adolescence), defines or characterizes the onset of formal logic, logically capable of operating entities or a symbolic language and thought is capable of deductive operations of logic and completeness of theoretical analysis. The new development of operations leading to the capacity for deductive reasoning ... is the first of these stages or sensorimotor stage where Piaget explains his conception of the concept of object permanence. This stage is further divided into 6 substages: Substage 1 (0-1 months) produced by the use of reflexes. Infants use their innate reflexes and gain some control over them. For example, suck up whatever is near your mouth and grab anything that touches your palm. For the baby there is no object permanence, is entirely lacking. Subestadio2 (1-4 months) at this stage are early changes in behavior to adapt to a new situation. Substage 3 (4-8 months)) is said to be the principle of intentional action. Coincides with the time that his interest in reaching born manipulatives in the environment (bottle, suck ...)Substage 4 (8-12 months) begin to anticipate events and previous schemes used to solve problems in actual situations. Children see and take a look rattle or a toy across the room and crawl towards him. Substage 5 (12-18 months) the first stage in which new activities essays rather than just repeating old ones. Its purpose is to explore (tertiary circular reaction). For example, a child crawl into a box, you lie on it, then put it on your head or try to get it to the cat. Substage 6 (18-24 months) At this stage the child thinks (plans) before making things. Make mental pictures of the facts and does not act only for testing - error. Object permanence quite developed, even for what has been hidden. Piaget's research suggests that, at first, children do not understand object permanence and that this understanding would develop gradually throughout childhood. In the first two substages, babies do not give any evidence to realize that objects exist independently of their own actions on them. It would only be from the third substage when children begin to search for objects that disappear. And at last when you have the notion of the object and thus can represent its trajectory. However, some studies (Bower, 1974, Harris 1983, 1989) indicate that already in the second substage, some children know that objects continue to exist even have been hidden behind a screen, and that his conduct should be no more search engine that a limitation of a lack of the concept of object permanence.

36. Sense and evolution of circular reaction. This theory of Piaget arises within their research on the development of intelligence in humans. Intelligence is adaptation to the environment from the processes of assimilation (incorporation of new experiences to their patterns of behavior) and accommodation (effort to incorporate new experiences). Importantly, the schemes are the basic units of behavior in children as behavior patterns are repeatable, generalizable and perfections which we follow throughout our life. In the sensorimotor stage of intelligence, the baby relates to the world through the senses and action, establishing relationships between objects and actions. This will develop schemes that are classified according to their complexity by circular reactions, which are segments of the baby behavior associated with a result that resembles repeating such conduct. The result of circular reactions, achieved through repetition, is the strengthening of motor schema. Repetition is a condition for the consolidation of the schemes. Sensorimotor development model proposed by Piaget: 1. Reflexes are the behavioral repertoire minimal, but enough to survive. Evolve which are functional, while others disappear. The evolution of innate behavior by both the differential practice of reflexes such as diversifying the influence of the environment, announces the first adaptations of the newborn and Initiates Construction of sensorimotor schemas. For example: hunger, sleep, sneezing, contraction of the lips in search of nipple sucking, etc. 2.. Primary circular reactions are simple schemes for the baby acquired by chance in trying to repeat what he was pleasant and avoid I did not like. Habits are acquired. They come from the reflections. These reactions are considered primary because the initial effect occurred by chance and because the actions that the child repeats routinely are focused on their own body. For example: orientation to sound, visual control, movement of an arm ...3. Secondary circular reactions are coordination schemes are initially simple causal consequences. The imitation of a model is deliberately and systematically both sounds of movement, with two differences from the primary: the child mimics the behavior visible only in your own body and present in his previous repertory. Spend perform behaviors to look for satisfaction results of their actions. It is also able to anticipate. For example: to mourn to take notice, mourn because an adult ceases to conduct that the child likes, hitting a bell with his hand because he likes the sound ... 4. Tertiary circular reactions schemes are to coordinate flexibly side, experiencing new ways that lead to desired effect. Serve to "see what happens" with the properties and relationships of objects. Involve the understanding of causality and fully intentional conduct. I do when a previous scheme is not effective. Causation is less magical. For example, the child discovers the correct use of the rake and plays zooming in and out objects, if they lose a ball, when searching under the couch and not finding it, look under the table: the father gives sucks and again throw down ... After the tertiary circular reaction children are able to represent the learned patterns without the need for action. This involves the passage of sensorimotor intelligence to the symbolic intelligence. We conclude that the development of sensorimotor intelligence of the child's inborn reflexes. Then repeat actions that were nice (RCP). Then, taking action to reach a certain goal (RCS). Then, taking action to "see what happens" and reach their objectives through innovative ways (RCT). Finally, it acquires the symbolism and is able to represent patterns.

37. Piagetian preoperative characteristics and critical thinking. Preoperational period extends approximately d and 2 to 7 years. The child is involved in a reality that encompasses several aspects: a social-minded individuals formed by (people) A physical objects and relations between them and an inner world of representations and schemes that are formed and modified over time. For Piaget, is a preparation stage for the development of concrete operations. The symbolic function is responsible for enabling the formation of mental symbols that represent objects, people or events absent. . Includes not only the symbol but it represents. For example, in the drawing and play
Drawing → ​​The children draw what they see, but what they feel and what they know, which allows drawing a diagnosis of intelligence and personality of children. Game → Creating involves an invented symbols and deforming asimilidora of reality. In the game, the child is released from the pressures and demands for the accommodation of those present to represent functional for pure pleasure. The game encourages a variety of mental activities such as language, memory, reasoning, imagination, creativity and planning. Features: Appearance perceptive (observable traits): The child is dominated by the perceptual aspects of objects .Concentration (decentration): The child focuses on single aspects of the situation or a single point of view (yours), ignoring other possible dimensions or points of view. Egocentrism. States (transformations): No related initial and final states of a process by ignoring the dynamic changes between. Irreversibility (reversibility): Can not redo the process followed to mentally return to the initial stage. Transductive reasoning (logical thinking): Make connections immediate associations between things by reasoning from the particular to the particular. Reviews There are many data accumulated in the last two decades show an underestimation of the child's competence at this stage by Piaget. It is thought that many of the tasks or problems designed to assess cognitive abilities in children of this age helped to create a profile of them very competent. The contents of the tasks are often unfamiliar and scarcely respectful to the interests of children.

38. Social and cognitive egocentrism. Egocentricity The word refers to the tendency to make one's point of view as the only, discarding the other. It is an excessive concentration on the actions and representations of the subject themselves. Self-centeredness is one of the aspects of preoperational thought is given to 2 to 7 years or so. This stage is the sensorimotor stage continuity, and which reinforces the symbolic function, which are as representative and practical schemes. Piaget speaks of autistic thought to characterize an intermediate form between symbolic thought described by Freud and socialized way of thinking and logic of the adult, the thought according to Piaget, is a private, incommunicable and pre logical thinking, where search and a some adaptation to reality, but remains focused on the subject and difficult to communicate. Piaget egocentric character applies to preoperational thought and distinguishes it from both the practice of sensorimotor intelligence and conceptual thinking characteristic of concrete operations. The term disappears almost completely self-centered vocabulary Piaget, due to the many criticisms and misunderstandings. The concepts of concentration and indifference become the most widely used to characterize the features of this thought. The child has a tendency to feel and understand everything through the same, it is difficult to distinguish what belongs to the outside world and other people and what belongs to his subjective view, and therefore will have difficulty being aware of your own thought. This general characteristic of children's thinking at this age may manifest in different forms - a phenomenon - Finalist - Artificial - Encouraging ... Another type of egocentrism that Piaget described (egocentric speech) is manifested in the speech of small and consists to speak only of himself, not interested in the speaker's point of view, or be in relationship with him. This inability to consider another point of view and tendency to take his as the only possible one, is closely linked to the trend that children themselves have to focus on one aspect of reality (which they are perceived) and its difficult to consider the transformations which move from their point of view of others.

39. Transit pre-operation to the operation and criticism of the Piagetian position.From 2 to 7 years or so there lies a very important stage in child development, termed by Piaget preoperative period. This stage reinforces the symbolic function, which has multiple forms (language, imagination, pretend play). Act mechanisms of assimilation and accommodation with their constant search for balance, but now does so on representative schemes. The preoperative period does not include a real stadium, but must be seen as a substage. A time for preparation of concrete operations. The actions are internalized and are organized in a representative level showing that the child is finally able to reason in a totally logical in relation to specific situations. What at first is merely an action becomes progressively internalized in operation. Preoperative intelligence is capable of simultaneously covering different events and situations, reflective and seek knowledge as such (look for an explanation of a phenomenon, checking, sorting, etc.).. As a representation of reality, can become socialized and shared thanks mainly to the social system encoded linguistic signs.
Piaget distinguishes two stages:
* Symbolic thought and preconceptual (year and a half to four years)
Symbolic function appears in its various forms (language, symbolic play ...). Piaget calls "prejudices" the first notions that children use in their language acquisition. The corresponding reasoning does not become a true deduction. The child focuses on a striking feature of a position that interests you and draws a conclusion on both wrongly assimilated another situation.
* Intuitive Thought (4 years to 6-7 years)
From 4 years may be filed with the child and suggest an ongoing conversation brief experiences in manipulating various objects. An example would be when presented with two identical containers with the same amount of liquid, pour into a bowl over a tall and narrow, and the other in a container wider but lower. A child of 4-5 years most likely respond that there is more in the tall container (if it focuses on the height) or fewer (if it focuses on the width).
Specific characteristics of preoperational thought: * Lack of balance: The preoperational thought lacks a stable balance between both mechanisms. * Mental experience: It is a way to learn the reality tends to be closer to the actions and results that construction Abstact and more schematic. * Centering: Tendency to focus on some aspects of the situation, discarding others and thereby causing a deformation of thinking or reasoning. * Irreversibility: The preoperative cognition, being close to the action and reality lack of specific mobility characteristic of reversible mental acts. * Statism: The preoperational thought tends to focus on the perceptual configurations. * Egocentrism: Tendency to take your own point of view as the only, discarding the other. Since the child has a tendency to feel and understand everything by himself, it is difficult to distinguish what belongs to the outside world and other people and what belongs subjective vision. For this reason have difficulty being aware of their own thinking ..... The preoperative period is a preparation for the advent of concrete operations.These operations are consolidated and organized from 6-7 years to 11-12 years. Is the phase of consolidation and organization of the evolution of intelligence representative. The passage of the operative intuitive thinking is a fundamental step, beyond the changing, unstable and preoperational thought subjective in the sense of greater stability, consistency and mobility. Thinking becomes truly logical. Intuition is an action and internalized. The child of 5-6 years no longer needs to act effectively on things, can represent and act on reality so mediated (via symbols, signs, etc).
The operation is an interiorized action integrated in a system. This enables the operational thinking a balance that is absent in the intuitive thinking. * Diversity: Psychologically there is a wide variety of operations depending on the scope. For example, the operation of assembly can be applied to classes (the class gathering of roses and daisies to you constitute a class of higher order, flowers). * Organizational Structure: According to Piaget, the operation is always integrated into a system of other operations and it is precisely because it is susceptible to group so that it becomes intuitive operation. This grouping of operations has, according to Piaget, cognitive five properties that match what Piaget called "bundling." * Decentration, conservation and reversibility: The same thought is to continue operating the successive transformations of reality through all paths and possible detours, and instead of proceeding from a unique vantage point, get to coordinate the different views. The operative aspect of thought is further studied by Piaget conservation. Because the subject can combine measures and not a victim of isolated as it once was, things are preserved. One of the limitations of Piaget presents itself is to assign a cognitive or other acquisition of a certain age, many children manage their mental operations before others. Studies have shown these variations but is generally always the same purchase order.
Other scholars have developed theories on child development is not based only on the cognitive area of ​​the child as based Piaget, but also take into account environmental development where the child grows and the social environment in which they live. Vygotsky and Bruner, for example, developed his theories based on other concepts are not influenced by Piagetian theory. For example, they place greater emphasis on play and language development and the important role of parents for children to learn and assimilate concepts at different ages.
Others argue that Jean Piaget obviated some key issues that may arise in the development, such as affectivity and social influence, and it is presented as a researcher who does not take into account the culture, where the subject appears to be a solitary body learning only in relation to objects in their environment.

40. Restricted concept of learning and comprehensive school in Geneva. The School of Geneva and argued that current knowledge Piagetian, cognitive development and intelligence is achieved through active and constructive learning in which the subject was creating his own drawings in a context of interaction with: adults, peers, culture, institutions. These agents promote and regulate the behavior of the subject, which develops mental skills (thinking, attention, memory, will, personal reflection, creativity) through the discovery and the process of internalization, which allows appropriate signs and instruments culture, to rebuild their meanings.It is thus that through experience, manipulating objects and interacting with people knowledge is constructed, modified, active in the cognitive schemes of the world around you through the process of assimilation and accommodation of reality the same. The difference between broad and narrow learning is that, the latter is a teaching tour, directed and imposed from outside the child where you get specific and concrete information of the environment, while learning involves a comprehensive qualitative progress cognitive structures leading to equilibration. For this equilibration takes place, the child will experience problems which stages an imbalance will occur and then produced disrupt cognitive restructuring and a change in the initial valence. We can say that with a limited learning abilities can be acquired, but according to the Geneva School of the knowledge acquired by these means are not equally robust with a comprehensive learning ... The fundamental principles of a general learning are the following: The learning has to be robust over time: what we learn today must be constant throughout our lives.The learning has to be generalizable to other disciplines should be usable outside the context in which we learned in different situations, and allow us to construct new meanings or resolve problems becomes a powerful indicator of the evaluation. The learning should be explained verbally learned concepts must be able to be transcribed in words and expressed to others. The learning should be resistant to contradiction: When we learn something, we resist change. But in a situation of insecurity forced the subject to modify their approaches, which brings us back to a position of resistance to change. For the Geneva school, especially to Piaget, learning in the general sense can be simplified to "learn to learn is to reorganize the knowledge" ... Basically for Piaget the teacher should be a guide and guiding the process of teaching and learning. That is why relegate the importance of social relationship by giving more prominence to the creation of the operative structures. The emphasis on the individual process of knowledge construction that favors the development of learning ... In contrast, Vygotsky presents his model of cultural learning, explaining the acquisition of learning as forms of socialization. He conceives of man as a social rather than biological, where the higher functions are the result of cultural development and involves the use of mediators.

41. Relationship between behavior and moral reasoning. According to Shaffer, both in social and moral levels, involving personal, family, school, social and cultural rights. The key objective is that the child becomes a competent and appropriate, morally responsible policy framework that is in the society to which it belongs. Each society has its norms to regulate behavior and coexistence among its members and their fulfillment depends on the functioning of it. In the rulebook, the moral is one of the basic dimensions for the achievement of social order. The development of morality is a process by which children and teens will understand the rules of social conduct and personnel conducting behaviors consistent with those standards. Involves three interrelated building blocks:- Emotional. So that the subject may or may not feel responsible for their actions. - Cognitive. Is to understand and reason what is right and wrong. They can then make judgments about right and wrong of a situation. - Behavior. Depending on the emotional and cognitive component, a behavioral issue .... There are three theories that have addressed the study of moral development and helped to understand better: psychoanalytic theory, which emphasizes the role of feelings of guilt and shame in the moral behavior, cognitive theory, which has been concerned about the moral reasoning, and behavioral theory, which has focused on explaining moral conduct as the result of learning, so that the man is not responsible for their actions but their behavior depends on external stimuli ... Jean Piaget, great epistemologist and author with more empirical and theoretical capacity of evolutionary psychology, focused primarily on the study of moral reasoning, that is, the criteria by which people judge moral behavior and reasoning about them .. . He argued that peer interaction, and without adult supervision was essential to moral development. Thus, children, build a system of rules and norms based on equality, consensus and cooperation. Through these interactions, individuals are more aware that people may have different perspectives and are concerned about the welfare of others. The aim is to reason, discuss, understand, and so on. They also learn that sometimes there may be good reasons to break a rule, which leads to moral relativism, which gives the rules be flexible ... Each culture creates its own codes so that each behavior must be placed in context and interpret it from him. The moral code handed down from generation to generation, ensuring their survival ... For example, Western culture is individualistic in nature and therefore the moral responsibility lies with the individual rather than group. However, in Eastern cultures, the group is the central reference point of morality ... In any case, it is usual to give discrepancies between social norms and personal moral convictions. Even the same person, there are irregularities between what they think and their actions. Are they good people reason morally right? There are many who preach a moral, socially frowned upon, and behave inconsistently with it. For example, a person says they never steal. However, it has been unemployed and has three children to be fed, and in a moment of desperation, steals food ... Studies show that moral reasoning is not a good predictor of behavior because it can be modified by the characteristics of the situation by the biography and the personal characteristics of people.

42. Preconventional and conventional morality Kohlberg. Kohlberg refined and expanded the moral theory of Piaget. Using clinical interviews as methods, Kohlberg found that moral reasoning seems to be evolving and increasingly complicated throughout adolescence into young adulthood, as they depend on the development of certain cognitive abilities evolve according to an invariable sequence. Careful analysis of responses to various moral dilemmas led him to conclude that the moral growth progresses through an invariant sequence of three levels, each of which consists of two different moral stages. Each stage reflects a method of reasoning about the dilemmas but not valued in the decision itself. Kohlberg claimed that despite the close link between moral development and cognitive development, growth of the latter was not sufficient to ensure moral development.- Level I. Preconventional Moral: People acting under external controls. They obey rules to avoid punishment and obtain rewards or selfishness. It is typical of children 4 to 10 years. - Stage 1: Orientation toward punishment and obedience. The goodness or badness of an act depends on its consequences. - Stage 2: Hedonism naive. People follow the rules for selfish ends. It assesses an act in terms of the needs met .... - Level II. Conventional: People act guided by a desire to gain approval from others or to maintain social order. This level is reached after 10 years but many people never reach even in adulthood. - Stage 3: Orientation of the child "good" acts are valued according to indulge, help or are approved by others. We evaluate the intent of the actor and takes into account the circumstances. - Stage 4: concern and social conscience. It takes into account the wishes of society reflected in the law. The right thing is obedience to the rule, not for fear of punishment but by the belief that the law maintains social order. Should not be transgressed unless there is a reason as required ... - Level III. Postconventional: We define good and evil based on broad principles of justice that could be in conflict with written law. The judgments are themselves based on the principles of right, fairness and justice. This level is not reached until adolescence or more commonly in early adulthood, if it is reached. Step 5: The orientation of the social contract. People think in rational terms, value the will of the majority and the welfare of society. The laws that compromise human rights and dignity are considered unfair and deserve challenge. However, obedience to the law is considered best for society in the long term. Stage 6: Morality of universal ethical principles. The individual defines right and wrong based on ethical principles chosen by himself, his own conscience. They act according to internalized norms and acts badly if you go against these principles. They are based on abstract rules of justice and respect for all human beings that transcend any law or social contract ..... This stage in Kohlberg's moral reasoning is ideal, but because of its rarity was considered a hypothetical construct. He later proposed a seventh cosmic stage on which people consider the effect of their actions not only on others but also about the universe as a whole. Kohlberg also proposed a transition level between levels II and III, when people do not feel bound by the moral standards of society have not developed rationing principles derived from justice, therefore their moral decisions based on personal feelings.

43. Gilligan's critique of the Kohlberg moral approach. Carol Gilligan criticized Kohlberg grounds that his theory did not adequately represent women's moral reasoning. The fact that the first data collected by Kohlberg were based only in male participants and the scores for women putting them at a lower stage to the men seemed to agree. Gilligan argued that the definition of gender that caused children to adopt a morality of justice, itself a stage 4, based on values ​​of honesty and fairness, and are trained in the independence and affirmation. Instead, girls are expected to adopt a morality of care, proper stage 3, based on values ​​of compassion, responsibility and self-sacrifice, and teaches them to be quality, empathetic and concerned for others.Despite these arguments, research has not supported the criticism of Gilligan, and moreover, seems to show that differences occur in early adolescence, encouraging women with higher scores than men. This seems to be because they generally develop earlier and are at that age, more intimate social relationships. Therefore can not confirm the existence of a different moral value system based on gender ... Perhaps, it would have to stay in this controversy is that Gilligan has expanded the thought of Kohlberg, who initially kept a very legalistic look about good and evil, providing a higher vision of moral reasoning when considering the importance of both sexes interact with other criteria of responsibility, compassion and care. In this sense, the inclusion of a seventh stage "cosmic" by Kohlberg seems to positions closer to the position of Gilligan.

44. Children's friendships between equals and unequal age. Advantages and disadvantages. For the good social development of a child no longer enough just to love, the company ... of the parents, they, to learn to socialize, they need the company of other children, whether of the same age, more or less. Playing the children burn off some energy, get ready for the duties of life, achieve difficult goals and alleviate frustration. They get physical contact, discharge needs of competence, act aggressively in socially acceptable ways, they learn to get along with others. Give free rein to their imagination, learn the specifics of their culture, develop skills and learn appropriate sexual behavior ... In middle childhood peer group itself becomes important. During these years, children spend more time away from their parents and more time with other children. Peer groups serve many purposes in the lives of children: they learn that such behavior is considered appropriate in different situations, as is seeing a variety of things that other children do, and how to relate to other people ... The children in group activities and help shape values. The kids seem more influenced by the values ​​of the group of girls and antisocial behavior or reflect greater negative influence of peers. Peers also provide emotional security, sometimes another child may provide some support that an adult can not. Peer groups tend to be homogeneous with respect to age, race, gender and socioeconomic status. But sometimes, kids have friends over, this can have positive or negative, as being older, can protect them, give them bad advice or good guide them better or worse, abuse them using their physical superiority, and so on. But turn, children being children, want to seek by all means acceptance of these show that they are equal, no matter the age difference, the games try to compete at the top to prove themselves, and so on. and this can lead to frustration .... In short, children need other children to learn to socialize as they do not just enough to the education given by parents. There are aspects that can only be developed with the help of other children, who are much needed, and not only in the area of ​​socialization, but in many ways. A good childhood friends, is essential for an individual to his good intellectual development, a team player, to avoid psychological disorders. But in turn, should take precautions, because not all friendships can contribute to good child development.

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